Non-Arboviruses

Nicolette Adamson
Mind Map by Nicolette Adamson, updated more than 1 year ago
Nicolette Adamson
Created by Nicolette Adamson about 6 years ago
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Description

The non-arbovirus section of Module two virology

Resource summary

Non-Arboviruses
  1. Retroviruses
    1. Causes immunodeficiencies, malignancies, anaemias and degenerative responses.
      1. Oncogenic retroviruses
        1. Rapidly transforming= v-onc gene in genome (in place of capsule gene)
          1. Slowly transforming= Provirus inserted into DNA next to c-onc gene
        2. RNA is converted to the DNA provirus by reverse transcriptase.
          1. RT enzyme is highly error prone and they lack proof reading capability.
            1. This allows rapid mutation and lets them evade the hosts immune system, they also are able to infect the cells of the immune system and integrate themselves into the host DNA
          2. They are transmitted horizontally or vertically and are very host specific. If the virus is endogenous it means the provirus has been inserted intot eh host DNA.
            1. Lentiviruses

              Annotations:

              • Transmission by body fluids Control by eradication They have long incubation periods and form persistent infections with a specific tropism for lymphocytes and monocytes.
              1. Visna (wasting) and Maedi (dyspnea)
                1. They have long incubation periods, and show general signs of weight loss.
                2. Caprine arthritis encephalomyelitis (goats)
                  1. Infection by mammary
                    1. Leukoencephalomyelitis common in kids 2-4months old.
                      1. Arthritis is the more common form of the disease, in adults over 12months old.
                      2. FIV

                        Annotations:

                        • More common in NZ than FeLV There is a long asymptomatic period followed (sometimes) by fever, anaemia, weight loss and behavioural changes. The late stages resemble human AIDs.
                        1. Transmitted by bite wounds (infection more common in male cats)
                          1. Control by vaccine, and anti-retroviral drugs.
                      3. TSE's

                        Annotations:

                        • Normal protein folds incorrectly due to the coercion from the pPrP version. pPrP then accumulates in the cell and eventually kills it. pPrP is less soluble and more resistant to proteases than the normal one. They are extremely resistant to everything, to kill them you have to autoclave with NaOH. Possible ways they occur is through Ingestion, Inheritance or De Novo. Pathological findings include fibrils and holes in the brain.
                        1. BSE
                          1. Transmission risks are mainly from food products. There can be risk from blood donations to humans as well.
                          2. Scrapie
                            1. By breeding resistant animals you are breeding ones with PrPc that is not alike to the PrPsc
                            2. Creutzdelft-Jakob disease
                              1. Classical
                                1. Sporadic - most common
                                  1. Hereditary - 2nd most common. Inherited disease
                                    1. Iatrogenic - least common. Transmission through medication
                                    2. New form. Longer duration of illness linked to exposure through food.
                                  2. Caliciviruses

                                    Annotations:

                                    • Hardy (inactivated at pH 3) Small, non-enveloped, RNA.
                                    1. Vesicular exanthema of swine

                                      Annotations:

                                      • Causes lesions on the muzzle, abortions, diarrhoea. Low mortality. Solid immunity with no cross protection. In sea lions too.
                                      1. Important DDx for FMD, but this one effects pigs and horses but not cattle.
                                      2. Rabbit calicivirus

                                        Annotations:

                                        • Faecal oral infection, Peracute disease with short incubation period followed by rapid death in 100% of adult rabbits.
                                        1. Rabbits under 2months old not killed.

                                          Annotations:

                                          • They may lack the mechanisms to initiate the clotting, Lack the receptors that allow the virus to effect hepatocytes.
                                          1. Prevention by vaccines
                                          2. Feline calicivirus

                                            Annotations:

                                            • Common of young cats, they have long term immunity after recovery. It is moderately stable in the environment and shed in large amounts in respiratory secretions and faeces.
                                            1. Control by vaccines, but there are many strains
                                          3. Bornaviruses
                                            1. Gets into brain via the trigeminal nerve.
                                              1. Diagnosis:round pink intranuclear inclusion bodies.
                                                1. Equine disease occurs in spring to summer.
                                                  1. Variable incubation period followed by ataxia, depression and neurological signs. 80-100% will die and those that survive will have stress relapses
                                                2. Papillomaviruses
                                                  1. Self-limiting warts in young or immunosupressed animals
                                                    1. Highly species specific but have multiple serotypes per species
                                                      1. Very resistant in the environment, but mainly transmitted by the skin.
                                                        1. Bovine papillomatosis.

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • Multiple serotypes with differing locations. When combined with the ingestion of bracken fern they can become oncogenic.
                                                          1. Equine papillomatosis

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • Do not regress spontaneously and require surgical intervention.
                                                            1. Sarcoids

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • Locally aggressive skin tumors. -Involved with BPV? Transmitted through cattle contact or insects. Can be removed in various ways.
                                                          2. Polyomaviruses
                                                            1. Transmitted by every route in birds, effects young animals with a high mortality rate. There is a vaccine. And it is present in NZ.
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