Explainations of Substance Abuse

Adam O'Rourke
Flashcards by Adam O'Rourke, updated more than 1 year ago
Adam O'Rourke
Created by Adam O'Rourke over 8 years ago


A-Levels Psychology (PSYB3 - Substance Abuse) Flashcards on Explainations of Substance Abuse, created by Adam O'Rourke on 06/08/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
(Hereditary) Melo (Gene Mapping) 60% of alcoholics and 50% of cocaine abusers have abnormal dopamine receptor genes
(Hereditory) Plomin Plomin came up with the idea of 'absence of brakes' People are not genetically driven to abuse substances, they are just genetically less able to stop or control themselves in regards to substance abuse
(Hereditary) Evaluation A genetic predisposition to substance abuse does not inevitably mean that the person will be come dependent on drugs
(Personality) Personalities Associated with Substance Abuse Flory - Extroversion McAdams - Low conscientiousness Davidson and Neale - High anxiety and novelty seeking Shedler and Block - High dependency needs that can be traced back to early childhood
(Personality) Morgenstern Interviewed 336 people in treatment for alcohol abuse, anti-social personality disorder was found to be associated with alcohol abuse
(Personality) Fabrega 40% of people in treatment for APD abused some form of substance
(Personality) Evaluation A wide range of personalities are linked with substance abuse. Establishing cause and effect is impossible Most of the research has been done on alcohol
(Social) Stein Alcohol abuse is more likely to be associated with role models such as parents, while other substances are associated with peer influence (Legality?)
(Social) Sarafino Found that the behaviour and attitudes of role models is very important
(Social) Killen People with friends that smoke are more likely to somke Social Selection or Peer influence?
(Social) Harris Behaviours learned in the teenage years are carried through to adulthood
(Social) Garnier and Stein Longitudinal of mothers when pregnant and children when 18. Found that teenagers model themselves on their peers, peer pressure explained why teenagers start substance abuse. Some evidence that teenagers who abuse substances actively sought friends with similar interests
(Social) Helzer and Canino The levels of alcohol abuse in Korea is 4 times the level in Taiwan In Korea it is normal to drink heavily and being drunk is socially acceptable In Taiwan, light drinking is acceptable but heavy drinking and being drunk is socially unacceptable
(Social) Social Control Theory Teenagers heavily involved in school activities, religion, and other conventional social institutes can be offset from peer influence. The stronger the connection the less likely they are to abuse substances
(Social) Bandura People with high self efficacy are less likely to be influenced by peers
(Social) Perkins and Berkowitz (Social norm approach) People are influenced by social norms, even perceived social norms Eg College students overestimate how much other students drink, and drink more themselves because of this. People change their behaviour based on misconceptions about others
(Social) Evaluation Heavy substance abuse is best explained by a mix of social, personality and genetic factors
(Hereditary) Methods of Investiagtion 1. Animal Studies (Melo) 2. Twin studies (Kaij) 3. Adoption Studies (Peters and Preedy) 4. Family Studies (Schuckit) 5. Gene Mapping
(Hereditary) Melo (Animals) Animals that tended to prefer alcoholic drinks were bred and their ofspring tended to prefer alcoholic drinks aswell
(Hereditary) Kaij (Twins) Looked at concordance rates of MZ and DZ twins where one of the twins was know to abuse alcohol. Found concordance rates of MZ to be 58% and for DZ twins, 28% Why did only one of them abuse alcohol?
(Hereditary) Peters and Preedy (Adoption) 18% of adopted children with alcohol abusing genetic parents and 5% of adopted children with non-alcoholic genetic parents abused alcohol when raised in a house with no evidence of alcohol abuse
(Hereditary) Schuckit Families of alcohol abusers reported feeling less effected by alcohol compared to people with no alcoholic family members Could be tolerance?
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