Crime and Punishment: Thematic Study - Attitudes in Society

Lili Emery
Flashcards by , created over 1 year ago

GCSE History Flashcards on Crime and Punishment: Thematic Study - Attitudes in Society, created by Lili Emery on 04/15/2018.

Lili Emery
Created by Lili Emery over 1 year ago
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Question Answer
What was considered the worst crime in the Middle Ages? Treason and heresy (going against God and the Natural Order)
How were ideas about morality enforced in the Middle Ages? People were devout, attending Church every day (where they would be told about the laws set up by God)
How was law enforced in the Middle Ages? Individuals were expected to uphold justice in small communities (with tithings and the hue and cry)
How did people in the Middle Ages decide guilt if the judge couldn't come to a conclusion? Trials of ordeal (were used, where the people would call upon God to decide someone's guilt)
What were the main aims of punishment during the Middle Ages? deterrence, retribution (for going against God)
What were the common types of punishment for serious crime? Corporal and capital punishment (were used for retribution and deterrence)
How would acts of treason like regicide be punished in the Middle Ages? People would be hung, drawn and quartered
What particular superstition saw a rise in the Early Modern period? Fears of witchcraft (led to the witch hunts in 1645)
Why were fears more easily spread in the Early Modern period? The invention of the printing press (led to increased fears of crime and stories being spread by word of mouth to those who couldn't read)
Which group of people began to be harshly punished in the Early Modern period? Vagabonds (were distrusted by the upper classes, leading to more laws against them)
What law showed that the belief that criminals should have the right to just treatment became more common in the Early Modern period? The Habeas Corpus Act of 1679 (stated that authorities could not lock up a person indefinitely without conviction)
What was created in the Early Modern period that showed more aspects of reform? Houses of Correction
As towns grew, how did the justice system decide to increase the deterrence of punishments in the Early Modern period? Executions would be done in front of crowds (to deter potential criminals)
Why was treachery still so harshly punished in the Early Modern period? The Divine Right of Kings (was still very widely believed)
How did art and print create an unrealistic view of criminals in the 18th and 19th centuries? Highway robbers were romanticised as gentlemanly outlaws
Why did smuggling see a rise in the 18th and 19th centuries? Overseas travel became easier and smuggling was quick and profitable
How did attitudes towards the reformability of criminals change in the 18th and 19th centuries? Darwin's discoveries led to new ideas about human nature (and also the belief in a criminal class that couldn't be reformed (social Darwinism), and atavism, the fear of deevolution)
How did the responsibility for the enforcement of crime change in the 18th and 19th centuries? People began to look increasingly to the government to look after crime (as the government began to take more responsibility for community life)
Why did prisons become more widely used in the 19th century? Execution began to be seen as too harsh. Prisons were introduced to make judges more likely to convict criminals.
Why were prisons so harsh in the 19th century? People believed that the "criminal type" had to be deterred and held under control (and that strict military-style regimes might be able to reform their brains)
What was the result of an increase in trust in the government and higher taxes being paid to parliament in the 19th century? Robert Peel was able to create a police force
Why was the Bloody Code abolished in the 19th century? Public executions had become rowdy and less effective as deterrents
How can we tell that people thought that just trials were more important in the 18th and 19th centuries? After the sentencing of the Tolpuddle Martyrs in 1834, there was mass public outcry and protests fighting for their release
How do we know that some in 18th and 19th century England saw prisons as too harsh? Elizabeth Fry and John Howard fought for the reform of prisons
How did the Great Wars change social attitudes towards punishment? During WW1/WW2, conscientious objectors were viewed as cowards by the majority of the public (and would be punished if they refused to help the war effort in any way at all)
How have fears of crime increased in the modern day? Increased media coverage and the exaggeration of crime online has led to increased paranoia
What crime has been defined in the modern period due to changes in social attitudes? Hate crime (has become punishable as human rights have been more frequently discussed)
How has the government been able to improve the police force in the modern period? A greater reliance on the government has led to a better ability to universalise the police force
How have the aims of punishment changed in modern society? Many people today believe that punishment should be focused on prisoner reform (leading to non-custodial alternatives and more reformative prisons)
How has the belief that prisoners can be reformed changed punishment in the modern period? The death penalty was abolished in 1965 after years of moral debate