Phonetics and Phonology

Flashcards by jenfawil, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by jenfawil over 6 years ago


General - Session 1

Resource summary

Question Answer
DEFINE PHONETICS Phonetics: describes how speech sounds are produced, transmitted & perceived, is interested in the mechanics of sounds
DEFINE PHONOLOGY Phonology: investigates how speech sound systems are used to convey meaning in language, is interested in the function of speech sounds
Outline the importance of phonetics and phonology for SLT ... (provide some examples of the use of phonetics and phonology in SLT...) -
What is Phonetics? (3 different types) • Articulatory phonetics • Acoustic phonetics • Auditory phonetics
What is ARTICULATORY PHONETICS? -Describes what we do with the ‘organs of speech’ when we produce sounds. -Traditionally provides the framework for classification of speech sounds -International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
What is ACOUSTIC PHONETICS? Analyses the movement and vibration of air which is caused by articulator movement -- spectrograms, spectra & waveforms--
What is AUDITORY PHONETICS? Studies how sound waves are decoded and identified as speech sounds --audiograms--
What type of PHONOLOGY do we concentrate on ? FUNCTIONAL PHONOLOGY
Outline the importance of phonology for SLT ... (examples of the use of phonetics in SLT...) Phonology tells us HOW OUR CLIENT USES SOUNDS TO COMMUNICATE and how this maps onto how his/her environment uses sounds for this purpose.
How are speech sounds produced? (Physically) The controlled movement of air through the vocal tract
Speech involves the careful coordination of...... (4 main ones) ... the lips, tongue, vocal folds and breathing etc
Speech sounds are made by manipulating...... ...the way air moves out of (or into) the vocal tract.
Most speech sounds are made on the out breath, this kind of air flow is called... an egressive airflow.... PULMONIC EGRESSIVE (Pulmo = lung, e = out, gress = move forward)
The lungs are spongy organs in the a)________________(/____). They are connected to the outside world via the b)_________/__________ They are surrounded to the front by c)____ the bottom by d)______ a) Thoracic cavity (/chest) b) Trachea / windpipe c) Ribs d) Diaphragm
What is the larnyx made of? Cartilage
Where are the vocal folds? (Aka vocal cords) In the larnyx!
When we breathe the vocal folds are... a) together b) kept apart. B) KEPT APART
When the vocal folds are kept apart, this allows air to flow over __________. THE GLOTTIS (the space between the folds)
During speaking the vocal folds can be made to vibrate. This is called __________ Sounds accompanied by this are called__________ sounds While those without this vibration are called __________sounds VOICING VOICED SOUNDS VOICELESS SOUNDS
What is VOICING? The vibration of the vocal folds during production of some speech sounds.
What is a VOICELESS SOUND? A sound produced without the vibration of the vocal folds.
What is CENTRAL AIRFLOW? When air flows down the middle of the vocal tract. (cold dry top of mouth and tongue when making S sound and breathing in)
What is LATERAL AIRFLOW? When air flows down one or both sides of the vocal tract. make articulation for an [l], breath in, feel cold dry patch on SIDES of mouth.
What controlls whether the air exits through the NOSE or MOUTH? The velum.
What are ARTICULATORS? What two groups do we often group them into? The parts of the oral tract used in producing speech sounds Active or Passive
What are ACTIVE articulators? The articulators that MOVE (e.g. the tongue tip in [S T N])
What are PASSIVE articulators? Passive articulators are ones that cannot move, but are the target for active articulators. (In the case of [s t n ] the passive articulator would be bony ridge behind the upper teeth - (alveolar ridge))
What is an ALVEOLAR SOUND? A sound made at the alveolar ridge [t d n l r s z]
WHAT IS A FRICATIVE ARTICULATION? The result of two articulators being in close approximation with each other. Close enough for air to pass, but a small gap creates turbulent friction noise (hissing) [f v s z ] etc
What are POSTALVEOLAR Articulations? Sounds made just behind the alveolar ridge <sh> in 'ship' <si> in 'invasion; <ch> in 'church' <dg> in 'judge'
What are PHONES? Concrete, phonetic entity One-off realisations of phonemes Can be described by stating configuration of the vocal tract which is used to produce them
What are the differences between PHONES and PHONEMES ? PHONES are minimal segments of speech belonging to PHONETICS concrete and real, with an infinite number will vary depending on their neighbouring phones, may even be pronounced differently in the same word on successive occasions, but such differences are accepted as yielding tokens of the SAME phone. PHONEMES are the smallest meaning distinguishing unit. but CANNOT BE REPLACED BY ANOTHER WITHOUT CHANGING MEANING. There is a fixed number of total phonemes. They are language specific. They are abstract and belong to Phonology
What are minimal pairs ? Words varying only by one phoneme.
How do we describe phones (how do we explain the sound in writing?) Articulatory description (what is happening in the vocal tract) Acoustic description (what are the consequences to the air flow) Auditory/Perceptual description (what does it sound like?)
SPEECH PRODUCTION INVOLVES a) Initiation (Production of _______) b) Phonation (Modification of the air stream in the _______ through the presence or absence of ______) c) Articulation (Modification of the airstream through changes in ____ ____ configuration a) air / airstream b) larynx c) vibration d) vocal tract
Define ARTICULATION Modification of the airstream through changes in vocal tract configuration
Define PHONATION Modification of the air stream in the larynx through the presence or absence of vibration
EXPLAIN WHAT HAPPENS TO PRODUCE A "Voiceless aspirated" PLOSIVE - Larynx stops vibrating during the production of the consonant; - blast of air can be felt when the closure is released. - Aspiration is indicated by using the diacritic [ʰ] after the voiceless plosive symbol.
EXPLAIN WHAT OCCURS DURING PRODUCTION OF A 'Voiceless unaspirated" PLOSIVE - Larynx stops vibrating during the production of the consonant; - NO blast of air can be felt when the closure is released
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