Crime and Deviance with sociological methods key terms

emzelise1996
Flashcards by , created over 5 years ago

Key terms used throughout unit 4 of A2 sociology

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emzelise1996
Created by emzelise1996 over 5 years ago
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Question Answer
Social Construct Something that is defined by society and that changes according to time and place
Subculture A group within a society whose members share common values and have similar behaviour patterns.
Delinquent Anti-social and criminal behaviour committed by children and teenagers
Status frustration The anger and resentment felt when individuals have their aspirations blocked
Concentric zones A series of circles within one big circle that represents one zone of a city
Labelling The process by which agents of social control, such as the police and courts, attach negative stereotypes to less powerful groups
Cultural capital An idea developed by the French sociologist, Bourdieu. He argues that the middle classes are able to give their children not just economic advantages, but also cultural advantages, such as the use of language, expression and valued social skills.
Self-fulfilling prophecy When a label is accepted and becomes fulfilled
Deviancy amplification When the actions of the media or police cause more crime to be detected or committed
Stigmatised When a group is given a negative label and treated with suspicion or hostility
Bourgeoisie A loose term for groupings in society who wish to cling onto its existing structure; the ruling class of urban society. Derived from French for of the town
Proletariat Those who provide the labour necessary to operate factories and other productive enterprises; the working class
Capitalist society A society like the UK or US characterised by private ownership of business and property
Communism An economic system without private business and property. Everything is owned by every member of society, with complete equality between everyone
Moral panic When society reacts against perceived deviance because of perceived media representations
Left wing A political view that tends to support the rights of the working class and is often critical of capitalism
Right wing A political view that tends to support elites in society and is supportive of capitalism
Zero-tolerance A policy in which all criminal offences are acted on, no matter how trivial.
Neighbourhood watch scheme A scheme where neighbours look out for each other and act as a deterrent to burglars and other criminals
CCTV Closed-circuit television; used to monitor behaviour and deter crime
Target hardening An approach to reducing crime that emphasises making it harder for crimes to be committed
White collar crimes Defined by Edwin Sutherland as 'crimes committed by persons of high social status and respectability in the course of their occupations.' Typical white collar crime is committed by a lawyer, doctor or accountant. Could include bribery, corruption and fraud
State crime A crime committed by the government, such as war crimes, genocide and torture
Objective Free from bias or subjectivity; based on fact not emotions
Reliable Research is seen as reliable if it produces the same results when repeated using exactly the same methods
Quantitative Pertaining to or concerned with quantity or its measurement; ascertaining or expressing quantity
Verstehn The use of empathy in the sociological or historical understanding of human action and behaviour