Free Will and Determinism

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Flashcards by BethNicolexoxo, updated more than 1 year ago
BethNicolexoxo
Created by BethNicolexoxo over 6 years ago
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Overview on everything freewill and determinism

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Free Will and Determinism. 1) Hard Determinism. 2) Soft Determinism. 3) Libertarianism. 1) Denies that humanity has free will. 'Pear trees cannot bear bananas... Everything is planned, connected, limited' -Voltaire 2) Both predetermined and free, some aspects are determined. 3) Entirely our free will, fully in control of our actions. 'If we choose to remain at rest, we may' -Hume
Hard Determinism Key Quotes Freud: 'Our childhood is the key to the way we develop and act morally' John Locke: 'A man wakes up in la locked room, he chooses to stay in it believing he has chosen freely to stay. His ignorance gives the illusion of freedom' Hegel: 'The spirit of an age defines who we will be' Spinoza: 'Man thinks himself in control for this reason alone, that he is concious of his actions and ignorant of their courses'
Soft Determinism Key Quotes James Rachels: 'Your decision is free if it is caused by your own desires, rather than by mental disorder, or by someone forcing you' Kant: 'Whilst we are independent thinkers and rational and therefore free to make moral decisions who we are as a person has been externally determined, preventing total freedom.' Piaget: 'At the age of 10 we are heteronomous meaning we take our conciousness from our parents' Thomas Sowell: 'Man is indefinitely plastic and is moulded by external forces to determine who we are, removing our freedom, to some extent, to make moral choices' Derren Brown: 'subliminal messaging and repetition influences and controls our thought processes without us realising, creating an illusion of being able to read minds'
Libertarianism Key Quotes Satre: 'without freedom of choice there is no meaning to life'
The Sciences and Freewill/Determinism 1) Psychology 2) Genetics/Environment 3) Social Conditioning 1) The brain has a clear effect on our behaviour. In several conditions individuals cannot entirely control their own actions. It doesn't directly refute the existence of free will, however it is valuable in developing on how the brain constructs free will. 2) Our behaviour stems from our ancestors or from nature. Formed by culture, this theory makes it impossible to hold others responsible for their actions. 3) Actions are caused by society, upbringing, learning and social settings. Sowell agrees and says 'human self is changeable and able to be perfected'
Religious Determinism Martin Luther: Humans are manipulated through sin, they know what is morally right but are unable to attain it. Humans must give up trying to do good. John Calvin: You are going to do something before you've even thought of it. Everything you do is planned. St Augustine: No human is able to do good without the grace of God. If you believe in God you gain an element of free will to do good. Ultimately only chosen by God.
Religious Freewill Desiderius Erasmus: God created human beings with free will. We can choose whether to be good or bad as people. Jacob Arminius: You can choose whether to have eternal life, as you can choose whether to have faith or not. Geisler: Complete and total freewill when it comes to accepting salvation. God made fact of freedom, we act of it.
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