Methods and Mining

emjaza
Flashcards by emjaza, updated more than 1 year ago
emjaza
Created by emjaza about 7 years ago
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Geology Flashcards on Methods and Mining, created by emjaza on 07/04/2013.
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Question Answer
Limestone, sandstone, siltstone and schist change into... Marble, quartzite, slate and gneiss
Types of aerial methods, and advantages... Gravity, Magnetic, electromagnetic, covers large areas quickly
Types of on-site methods, and advantages... Seismic, geochemical, more precise and accurate
Satellite images and geological maps... geological maps- from top and side, side called cross-section, help decide best way to mine Satellite images- make image using light-rays we can't see, near-infrared, shortwave-infrared, thermal-infrared, help see features we can't see
Gravitational surveys... dense materials change gravitational pull, gravimeter, give clues to what minerals are there
Electromagnetic surveys... find good conductors of electricity- transmitter sends magnetic field, creates electric currents in minerals, which makes secondary magnetic field, receiver detects secondary field- copper sulphide, zinc sulphide, lead sulphide, gold, silver
Magnetic surveys... iron, cobalt, nickel (iron the cobalt shirt, Nick) change magnetic field around them, magnetometers detect change, 'magnetic anomaly'
Seismic surveys... Send shockwave into ground, record reflected sound wave- geophones detect sound waves, explosives/mechanical vibrators- give deeper and better images, gives info on structure of 35-60km of the crust- help understand how minerals form
Geochemical surveys... Drill hole in rock/collect samples, 'core samples', check amount of minerals in the rock- groundwater indicator- dissolves buried minerals, helps detect metals- uranium and arsenic found near gold
Mining types... depends on... Surface, underground, leach mining, and dredging... type of mineral, geology of the area, cost and mineral value
Dredge mining... pit dug then filled with water, minerals heavier than sand, boats pump the sand and water out, separate from the minerals, minerals collected, water and sand pumped back in
Leach mining... drill holes in the rock, rocks injected with a solution which dissolve the ore-'leach solution', dissolved ore solution is pumped up to the surface, then the solution gets mineral gets separated
Surface mining... cheapest if near the surface, large pit/open-cut mine, mined using machines with large shovels, drag lines, and big drills called augers
Underground mining... ore deep, fairly concentrated, and in a small space/ in narrow veins, cheaper, vertical shaft down to level, then horizontal shaft into the rock, hoisted up to surface, or, decline so that it can be driven out by vehicle
Drilling is used to mine... Petroleum (natural oil and gas)
Petroleum wells what is there... Tall structure to support drilling equipment- derrick Drill bit, gets hot so clay, chemicals and water pumped through Metal casing/hollow tube, wellhead-system of pipes and valves to separate and storage tanks
Process at petroleum wells... Bore holes into rocks until oil/gas is found, when found, drill and pipe removed from whole, metal casing lowered in and cemented in place. Wellhead separates the oil and gas into storage tanks
If the natural pressure of the oil and gas drops... a pump can be used, or water, steam or gas can be injected in to increase the pressure and make the oil flow more
Ocean rigs... some float attached to wires, others are on the seafloor, others are ships which can move around, oil/gas pumped through pipelines on seafloor to refineries, floating ships which link up to well and collect oil/gas for treatment and storage on board.
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