Art History 102 Midterm Review

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Flashcards by Maddy ., updated more than 1 year ago
Maddy .
Created by Maddy . almost 2 years ago
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Flashcards on Art History 102 Midterm Review , created by Maddy . on 10/12/2018.

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Question Answer
Lasaux Cave -15,000 BC-13,000 BC -deep inside the caves-promotes idea that the paintings were sacrificial
Woman of Willendorf -25,000 BC- 20,000 BC -rare human figure -shown to be well-fed
Stonehenge -2000 BC -huge sun dial -megalithic (huge stone) -post and lintel
Ziggurat at Ur -Sumerian -2500 BC- 2050 BC -sun baked mud brick -battered walls (sloped inward) -weeper holes (drain water)
Sumerian Statue -simple -distinctive big eyes -statues take the place of people at church
Code of Hammurabi -Assyrian -1760 BC -stele -laws written on it, so it's a legal document, historically important, and art
Nergal -Assyrian -god of summer/heat and war -guard outside of a palace, but the real purpose is unknown
Great Pyramids of Giza -Egyptian -4th dynasty, Old Kingdom -4 corners point in the 4 directions -often looted -Cheops, Chefron, Mycerinus buried in them
Temple of Queen Hatshepsut -Egyptian -1478 BC- 1458 BC, 18th dynasty -built by Senmut -built with passages and terraces to confuse looters
Temple of Amen-Mut-Khansu -Egyptian -father-mother-son (gods) -Pylon (massive gateway) -has the same layout of a home -columns decorated with plants (maybe for fertility)
Rahotep and Nofret -2580 BC -sitting pose (1/4 poses) -shown in physical prime (idealized)
Mycerinus and His Queen -2490 BC- 2472 BC -standing with one foot forward (2/4 poses), shows royalty and power -wearing ceremonial clothes and false beards
Seated Scribe -sitting cross-legged (3/4 sculpture pose), a pose only for scribes -only type of statues that are realistic and show physical flaws and personality
Kneeling Hatshepsut -kneeling (4/4 sculpture pose), very rare pose -she wears false beards and mens ceremonial clothes even as a woman, showing that she was a king
Ti at Saqquara -2500 BC- 2400 BC -Ti is larger to show importance -boat sits on top of the water -low relief: the images stay attached to the background -shows natural observation with the plants and animals
Tomb of Nakht -18th dynasty -size=importance again
Amenhotep and Nefertiti (worship the sun god) -only break in Egyptian tradition, Ankhenaten/Amenhotep moved the capitol and made Egypt worship 1 god (Aten) : Amarna Period -sunken relief -rare depiction of a whole family -shown with possibly real deformities -size=importance
Nefertiti Bust -very recognizable and realistic
Cycladic Woman -2nd and 3rd milennia BC -stylized and generic -fertility statue -cant stand, meant to lay flat (fertility)
Palace of Minos, Knossos, Crete -Minoan -1700 BC-1300 BC -gypsum and wooden beams -Throne Room: oldest surviving throne, 2 painted griffens "guarding" the throne -Queens Megaron: painted dolphins and fish on the walls
Inverted Column -Minoan style column with a larger top than bottom, no base
Toreador Fresco -Minoan -1550 BC- 1450 BC -restoration debate -lively movement -differing skin tones (not representative of anything)
Snake Goddess -1700 BC- 1500 BC -Minoan -made of gold and faience (pale ceramic clay) -snakes were connected to the underworld and thought to cure disease, restore life, and promote fertility
Lion Gate -Mycenean -1300 BC- 1200 BC -relieving triangle to take weight off the arch -made of stone
Treasury of Atrius, Mycenae -1300 BC- 1200 BC -dromos (entryway) with asnlar masonry (stones with right angled corners) -thoros (round building) with a corbelled dome (stones decreasing size as the dome goes up)
Gold Death Mask -Mycenean -1550 BC- 1500 BC
Geometric Period Funerary Vase -style from Athens and Attica -features checkers, zigzags, and blocks and simplified humans and animals (starting in 850 BC)
Corinthian Ware -700 BC- 500 BC -dark on light style with all the space filled in -from the city of Corinth (top vase producers until Athens)
Black Figure Pottery -white details on black background -details make by small incisions scraped in -invented in Corinth -most famous artist was Exekias
Red Figure Pottery -530 BC- 525 BC -red/orange clay with black painted over it -details made with a paintbrush (easier than incising)
Horse -sacrificial -8th century BC -simplified and abstract -pinched waist, common for the geometric period
Archaic Kouros -basic anatomy, stylized body parts -archaic grin: smiling (but not meant to be) -one foot forward
Kore -archaic grin -fashionable
Doric -no base -alternating triglyphs and metopes on the frieze -cushion-shaped echnius and abacus
Ionic -known for the scrolls (volute) -has a base -continuous freize
Corinthian -curly acanthus (plants and flowers) -least popular order
Acroplis -acro=high polis=city -rock hill with the top flattened -all buildings on it are sacred -includes the Propylaia, Temple of Nike, Parthenon, and Erechteon
Propylaia -437 BC -Doric -unfinished
Parthenon -temple for all the gods - peristyle:columns all the way around -refinements (imperfections): columns are at an angle, no straight lines, most likely meant to be for aesthetics -made by Iktinos and Kallikrates -Doric
Erechtheion -437/421 BC -406/405 BC -irregular and unfinished -olive tree outside (symbol of Athena) and 3 trident marks (Poseidon) -Kekropium (grave of Kekrops, 1st king of Athens) -Salt Sea of Erecneteus (resevoir) -Porch of the Maidens: has 6 caryatids (women in place of columns)
Temple of Nike -427 BC- 424 BC -by Kallikrates or Mnesikles -Ionic -miniature monument
Kritios Boy -480 BC -in the style of Kritios of Athens -transition from traditional kouros to more modern ones -severe style (early Greek style popular from 480 BC-450 BC) -Contrapassto Pose (weight on one leg, arched spine, natural) -still has a basic anatomy
Doryphoros ("Spear Bearer") -440 BC -made by Polykleitos of Argos -beginning of Classical Era -Roman copy -ideal male figure -head is 1/8 of the statue
Discobolus ("Discus Thrower") -450 BC -made by Myron of Athens -perfect anatomy -shows movement: statue is at the point where his direction of movement is changing -advanced naturalism
Capitoline Aphrodite -2nd or 3rd century BC -idealized female body type -more "modest" than other female nudes
Nike of Samothrace -200 BC- 190 BC -movement: it moves forward into wind and extends the wings
Laocoon and His Sons -anywhere from 2nd century BC- 100 AD -by Hagesandros, Athanodoros, and Polydoros of Rhodes -example of emotion in sculpture -laocoon and his sons being attacked by snakes, showing pain and emotion
White Ground Pottery -first half of the 5th century BC -white background with a white matte slip and details painted on -figures were outlines only
Tomb of the Reliefs -4th-3rd century BC -made of tufa (white stone that hardens when exposed to air) -nicer tomb with all the items from a house, even pillows -filled with reliefs of household items and has space for many family members
Tomb of Hunting and Fishing -520 BC -reliefs of different animals, hence the name of the tomb -the animals have personality and seem to mock the hunters
Husband and Wife Sarcophogus -520 BC + 510 BC -shown alive and happy, relaxing -not individualized, just a generic couple
Sarcophagus of Lars Pulena -2nd century BC -individualized, shows him as a stoic old man
Capitoline Wolf (+ Romulus and Remus) -actually Etruscan, but a symbol of Roman art -shows differing textures on the fur of the wolf
Etruscan Model Temple -built based on Vitruvius' writings and descriptions of the temple -Doric
Pantheon -118 AD- 125 AD -dedicated to all the gods -16 Corinthian columns on the porch -built by Apollodorus of Damascus -oculus (eye at the top of the dome) -coffers (square indents in the dome to relieve weight)
Colosseum -double amphitheater -80 arches on the first level -columns go from Doric-Ionic-Corinthian as the levels go up---> Masculine-Feminine Theory of how the column styles are increasingly feminine and need to be "protected" by the masculine one at the bottom
Augustus of Primaporta -20 BC -life sized marble statue -meant to glorify Augustus and Rome -used to hold a spear -arm extended, talking to his subjects
Tellus Relief -Tellus = earth goddess -shown with babies and plants to promote fertility
Column of Trajan -113 AD -Trajan-a practical ruler who focused on infrastructure -designed by Apollodorus of Damascus -contains a stairway in it -tells a story through reliefs going up the column (150 scenes)
Marcus Aurelius -ruled from 161 AD-180 AD -oversized bronze statue -used to show the horse stomping someone, but it is now just the horse and Marcus Aurelius
Julius Caesar Statue -44 BC -realistic marble sculpture that shows what he really looked like
Caracalla -ruled 211 AD-217 AD -he is shown with an angry expression that reflects the tension of the time
Constantine -307 AD- 337 AD -oversized -huge eyes
Roman Man Holding Lineage Busts -late 1st century BC -wears a toga (status symbol) -importance placed on ancestors
Santa Costanza -350 AD -clerestory windows -central plan -filled with mosaics (biblical) -ambulatory goes around first floor
Good Shepard Sarcophagus -late 3rd-early 4th century -jesus surrounded by sheep and goats -accepts sheep, rejects goats
Catacombs of Saints Pietro and Marcellino, Rome -4th century -jesus as a shepherd again -dome showing people in orant pose (hands raised in prayer)
San Vitale, Ravenna -526-547 -octagon shaped -plain brick exterior -filled with mosaics inside of Justinian praying (Byzantine style, long)
Hagia Sophia, Istanbul -532 -Anthremius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus for Justinian -dome on pendentives: circular dome on a square base with transition pendentives
San Marco, Venice -1063 -largest, most important church -Greek cross plan: all 4 "arms" are the same size -narthex contains Creation Dome (1200) covered in mosaics
Madonna and Child Enthroned -1270 -tempera on wood panels -yellow/white highlights on the clothing -mean to look otherworldly
Purse Cover, Sutton-Hoo, England -625-633 -found in a ship burial -"animal style": the pattern is made of distorted animal images
Book of Kells -800 -manuscripts -written/illustrated by Irish monks -contains gospels and stories -small in size -accurate human portrayals
Charlemagne's Palace Chapel, Aachen, Germany -designed by Otto of Metz -8 sided interior -semi circular arch
Plan of St. Gaul -816-817 -never actually built -basic monastery meant to be customized -apse on both sides (abnormal)
Gospel Book of Charlemagne -800-810 -illuminated folios -from Charlemagne's tomb -shows saints John and Matthew
Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France -1070-1077 -unfinished -crossing tower=tallest part -barrel vaults
Saint-Madeline, Vezelay -1096-1132 -Romanesque/Gothic/Over-Restoration -voussiors: wedge-shaped stone bigger on the outside of the arch than the inside -cross vaults: intersecting barrel vaults that make an arch
Durham Cathedral, Durham, England -1093-1133 -lumbard bands: row of blind arches -alternating structure with stone ribs to support the vaults -simple geometric patterns -complex 7 part vaults
Bayeux Tapestry -1066-1082 -Battle of Hastings (1066) -200 ft. embroidered linen scroll -King Edward of England shown larger=importance
Pisa Cathedral -1063 -Buscheto and Rainaldo -"zebra work": alternating light and dark decorations -latin cross plan
Pisa Bell Tower (Leaning Tower of Pisa) -1174 -Bonanno Pisano -16 ft. out of place because of poor foundation
Tympanum at Autun Cathedral -artist is Gislebertus -shows apostles mission -zodiac signs shown=all the pictures are for illiterate audiences
No picture/not sure Madonna and Child -12th century -Mary with Jesus on her lap -Jesus shown as a small man -perfect lines and folds in the drapery
Klosterneuburg Abbey Altarpiece, Vienna -1181 -Nicholas of Verdun -45 plaques showing bible scenes -engraved enamel on wooden supports
Saint-Denis -1137-1140 -Abbot Suger: put himself in the artwork -early gothic -pointed arches with reinforcing ribs -stained glass supported by flying buttresses
Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris -13th century -balance of horizontal and vertical lines on the facade -3 portals, 2 towers, 1 rose window
Notre Dame at Chartres -1145-1220 -ugly ass -high gothic -asymmetrical towers -emphasis on vertical
Saint-Pierre, Beauvais -1225-1272 -"too refined" collapsed twice -only apse and chapel remain
Saint-Chapelle, Paris -1243-1248 -built by Pierre de Montreuil for Louis IX -Rayonant Gothic -cage of stained glass -held relics
Saint Maclou, Rouen -designed by Pierre Robin and Ambroise Havel -intricate stone tracery bars -no chapel in east end (rare)
Salisbury Cathedral, England -1220-1258 -Nicholas of Ely -double transepts -horizontals stressed -unusual plan -thin buttresses
Westminster Abbey -1503-1519 - built by Robert and William Vertue -perpendicular vaults hang down -fan vaulting: vaults rotate out of the center
Florence Cathedral -1296 -Giotto -iconic dome
Column Figures at Reims -1230-1245 -interact with each other -detailed drapery
Notre Dame de Paris -early 14th century -made of marble -hip-shot pose: baby on hip -shows movement
Psalter of Saint-Louis -1260 -commissioned by Louis IX -Joshua fighting the sun -flat and colorful painting -current architecture in the background
Les Tres Riche Heures du Duc Berry -Pol, Herman and Jean Limbourg -private prayer book -one folio for each month -depicts lifestyle of different social classes (historical importance)
Chartres Stained Glass -1150 -Jesus' life chronologically from the bottom up -colorful paint over grisaille
Baptistery Pulpit -1259-1260 -Nicola Pisano -hexagonal structure -Nativity scene -identifying attributes for illiterate people
Cathedral Pulpit -1302-1310 -Giovanni Pisano -rounded structure -Nativity scene -slim figures, flowing drapery, more mood
Duccio's Madonna and Child -symmetrical composition -Mary large to show importance -no depth
Giotto's Madonna and Child -1310 -more realistic -3d and emotional -shows depth
Arena Chapel, Padua -1306 -Giotto of Florence -death of Jesus, saints look on -very emotional -use of space draws attention to Jesus -large figures
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