week 2 - what is normality?

Aamna Khan
Flashcards by , created 9 months ago

UNIVERSITY (CLINICAL) Flashcards on week 2 - what is normality?, created by Aamna Khan on 02/07/2019.

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Aamna Khan
Created by Aamna Khan 9 months ago
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Question Answer
defining abnormality must distinguish between abnormality and normality stigmatising connotations relating to being 'normal' there are no clear cut definitions
no clear definition of abnormality there cannot be one specific definition of what is abnormal however we can look at conditions that allow us to distinguish between normal and abnormal
approaches 1. the statistical approach normal distribution bell curve behaviours and experiences is not usual or typical :) advantage of a cut-off point :) easy to use :( statistically abnormal may not mean a disorder :( scoring slightly differently on one test does not automatically mean you have a mental illness
approaches 2. deviation approach society has ideas of what is normal and what is abnormal :) intuitive approach (easy to use) :( social deviance might be a choice :( cultural, gender and time differences
approaches 3. adequacy approach characteristics which we process as 'normal' :( importance of the situation and context is ignored
approaches 4. personal distress approach subjective feelings of distress may be the symptom of abnormality :( lack of distress may be abnormal :( some disorders are not associated with distress
approaches 5. maladaptiveness maladaptiveness is behaviour that affects yourself and others :( maladaptive behaviour is not always abnormal such as adrenaline sports and skipping class
family resemblance abnormal behaviour takes many forms we need to identify the main features
Rosenham and Seligman (1989) 7 criteria to decide abnormality 1. suffering - experience distress and discomfort 2. maladaptiveness - behaviours that make things difficult for others 3. irrationality and incomprehensibility - unable to communicate effectively 4. unpredictability - unexpected actions 5. vividness and unconventionality - different experiences than others 6. observer discomfort - acting in a way that is difficult to watch 7. violation of moral and ideal standards - break accepted ethical and moral standards
multidisciplinary teams (MDT) led by consultant psychiatrists - can prescribe medication nurses - monitor progress, recommend medicine, provide basic psychological therapies clinical psychologists - provide complex therapy, support therapeutic work occupational therapist - provide real life training psychiatric social workers - helping with problems such as finance, housing, employment
the medical model current mental health care is rooted to medical model strongly allied with general medicine emphasises on physical factors (brain structure, genetics) symptoms are caused by physical malfunction treatments possible by biological functions :) grounded in science :) theories are testable :) treatments are effective :( mental illnesses are not physical :( treatments are not always effective for everyone :( reductionism
psychological model psychodynamic psychopathology arises from unconscious conflicts psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy are treatments :) childhood experiences shape all adult personality :) defence mechanism controls anxiety :) alliance between patient and therapist :( not scientific evidence :( reliability bias and sampling problems :( treatment ineffective
psychological model behavioural abnormal behaviour is learned classical and operant conditioning behavioural therapy :) reduces gap between normal and abnormal :) effective methods of treatment :( difficult to demonstrate :( treatment does not imply cause
psychological model cognitive response to events determine moods maladaptiveness caused by misinterpretations CBT - behaviour and emotions can be changed by changing cognitions :) consistency with experience :) effective treatments :( lack of explanation :( difficult distinction between cognitive and behavioural viewpoints
psychological model humanistic focus on insight, personal development and self-actualisation behaviour = subjective experience of fears and conflicts, individuals have free will client-centred therapy (Rogers) :) focuses on individuals :) promotes self-growth :( difficult to evaluate :( lacks evidence for effectiveness
psychological model sociocultural can influence acquisition, development and expression of mental health issues
biopsychosocial model eg diathesis-stress model not limited to one school of thought links biological, social, environmental and psychological factors :) useful :) can accommodate multidimensional approach :( lack of theory
multidimensional approach neuroscience genetics behavioural cognitive social and interpersonal