OCR Biology F211 Cell Structure

Megan Vann
Flashcards by Megan Vann, updated more than 1 year ago
Megan Vann
Created by Megan Vann over 6 years ago
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state the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a light microscope. resolution= 200nm magnification= x1500
state the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a scanning electron microscope. resolution= 0.2nm magnification= x100000
state the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a transmission electron microscope. resolution= 0.2nm magnification= x500000
explain the need for staining samples for use in light microscopy. coloured stains are chemicals that bind to chemicals in or on the specimen. This allows the specimen to be seen. Some stains bind to specific cell structures.
explain the need for staining samples for use in electron microscopy. staining it using lead salts scatter the electrons differently- giving contrast.
define magnification. The degree to which the size of an imagine is larger than the object itself.
define resolution. the degree to which it is possible to distinguish between two objects that are very close together. the higher the resolution the more detail can be seen.
how do you calculate magnification? image size ____________________ actual size
What is an eukaryotic cell? A eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.
What is an ultrastructure? The detail inside the cell, as revealed by an electron microscope.
What is division of labour? The different organelles working together in a cell, each contributing its part to the survival of the cell.
What is the role of the cytoskeleton ? 1) keep the cells shape stable. 2) Move some organelles around in cells ( and vesicles). 3) Take part in cell division. 4) flagellum help the whole cell move around.
outline the role of a nucleus. Houses nearly all the cells genetic information. It has the instructions for making proteins.
Outline the role of the nucleolus. Makes ribosomes and RNA.
Outline the role of a nuclear envelope. Contains multiple pores( nuclear) which regulate the passage of proteins and RNA (e.g mRNA) in and out of the nucleus.
Outline the role of the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Rough-transports proteins that were made at the attached ribosomes. Smooth- lipid and carbohydrate synthesis.
Outline the role of the Golgi apparatus. receives(from the RER), modifies and packages the proteins ( in vesicles) and sends them to the edge of the cell. Makes lysosomes.
Outline the role of ribosomes. Protein synthesis.
Outline the role of mitochondrian. Site of aerobic respiration. Produces ATP energy.
Outline the role of lysosomes. contain powerful digestive enzymes that break down materials. E.G old/ dead cells and invading microorganisms.
Outline the role of chloroplasts. Site of photosynthesis.
Outline the role of plasma surface membranes. Selectively permeable barrier that regulates the movement of substances in and out of cells.
Outline the role of centrioles. Take part in cell division. Form the spindle fibres which move chromosomes during nuclear division.
Outline the role of a flagella. Flagella= bacteria cell Undulipodia=eukaryotic cell Can move whole cell. ( uses ATP energy)
Outline the role of cilia. The sweeping movement of the cilia move substances like mucus across the surface of cells. ( to be removed)
Outline the relationship between organelles involved in the production and secretion of proteins. 1) mRNA collects the instructions to make proteins from the nucleus ( through nuclear pore) 2) mRNA attaches to ribosome that's on the RER. The ribosome reads the information and makes the protein. 3) The assembled protein inside the RER is packaged into a vesicle and transported to the Golgi apparatus. 4) The Golgi apparatus receives the proteins and may modify it ready for release. Protein now pinched off into vesicle and sent to the cell surface membrane where it is secreted out the cell.
What is a plant cell wall made out of? cellulose.
What is a bacterial cell wall made out of? peptidoglycan.
What can the general area where the DNA is in a bacterial cell be called? Nucleoid.
What is the role of a capsule in a bacterial cell? To prevent dehydration of the cell and allows it to attach to other cells.
What is the size of a prokaryotic cells? 1-5 micrometres.
What is the size of prokaryotic cells? 10-100 micrometres
What is the role of a vacuole? Maintains cell stability : Turgidity and storage.
What is the role of a mesosome in a bacteria cell? aerobic respiration.
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