Memory Flashcards AS Psychology

Angel Nicole
Flashcards by Angel Nicole , updated more than 1 year ago
Angel Nicole
Created by Angel Nicole over 6 years ago


A Levels Psychology Flashcards on Memory Flashcards AS Psychology, created by Angel Nicole on 11/26/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Peterson and Peterson (1959) [Consonant Syllables] {Duration} •24 students - eight trials each •Consonant syllables, verbal rehearsal prevented. • Retention interval of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 • After 3 seconds, recall = 80% •After 18 seconds, recall = 3% •Stimulus material artificial • lacks validity = displacement may explain findings
Nairne et al. (1999) [STM update] {Duration} •Different iteams each trial, no interference •Participants shown five nouns •Asked to recall in correct order •Correct recall after 96 seconds •STM longer duration than expected •Realistic •Involves recognition memory.
Bahrick et al. (1975) [Duration of LTM] {Duration} • Nearly 400 participants, aged 17 - 74 • High school yearbook • Recognised test of faces / recall of names • Face recognition = 90% = after 15 years • Declined to 70 % = after 48 years • Free recall = 60 % = after 15 years • Rehearsal may explain results • High ecological validity
Miller (1956) [The magic no. 7+2] {Capacity} •The 'study' is review of other research. •Things come in sevens. •STM task = dots on screen. •Can count 7 but not 15 dots. •Capacity of STM = 7 items (+/- 2) • Chuncking used to increase capacity •Miller may have overestimated capacity •Miller's insight lead to everyday applications.
Jacobs (1887) [Capacity of STM] {Capacity} • Developed digit span technique. • Digits/letters reads one at a time. •Recall tested. Another digit added until can't recall correctly. •Means span for digits 9.3. •Mean span for letters 7.3. • Digit span increased with age (Chunking) •Not a recent study. •Confirms Miller's conclusion.
Simon (1974) [The size of chunk matters] {Capacity} •Tested own recall. •Recall with words or 2/3 Syllables •Recall with phrases •More syllables = shorter span, size of chunk matters •Digit span greater for longer words. •More words in span = shorter span. •May not be generalised •Supported by word length effect.
Baddeley (1966) [Encoding in STM and LTM] {Encoding} •4 groups (acoustically, semantically similar/dissimilar •Recall was tested by placing words in right order. •STM and LTM tested. • Acoustically similar = worst for STM. •Semantically similar = worst for LTM. •Encoding differs in STM and LTM. •Artificial stimuli •LTM task wasn't very long term.
Brandimonte et al. (1992) [Visual encoding in STM] {Encoding} • Visual task - 6 picture pairs. • Subtract one from other and recall •Some participants given an articulatory suppression task - some effect. •Encoding visual. •STM encoding not always acoustic. •Supported by other studies. •Conflicts with Baddeley's findings.
Frost (1972) [Visual encoding in LTM] {Encoding} •Drawings of 16 common objects. •Recall or recognition test. •Responses timed. •Faster response - original orientation. • STM encoding - visual. •Those expecting recall, encoded semantically. •Requirement to be fast may have biased results. • Casual conclusions can be drawn.
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) [Multi- store model] • Information processing model diagram. •(Sensory Model) - milliseconds- large capacity. •Attention to items in SM - transfer to STM. •STM has limited duration - seconds - capacity- 5 chunks - acoustic encoding. •Increasing verbal rehersal - transfer to LTM. •LTM potentially unlimited - semantic. •Easy to test. • Support study of HM. • Further support comes from brain scans. •Oversimplifies memory processes. •Ignores importance of elaborative rehearsal. •No longer preferred theory of memory.
Baddeley and Hitch 1974 • Working memory model explanation of STM • Central executive allocates slave systems. • Phonological loop consists of phonological store and articulatory process. •Visuo -spatial sketchpad •Episodic buffer, temporary storage. • Dual task performance illustrates WMM. • Supported by case study of KF • Word length effect supports phonological loop. • Supported by dual task performance activity • lack of clarity for cetral executive •◇restricted to STM •Offers refinement for MSM
Loftus and Palmer (1974) (Speeding cars part 1) (EWT) • 45 participants - film of car accident • Asked to estimate speed • verb - 'smashed'/'contacted' •smashed = 40.8 mph • contacted =31.8 mph • faster than reality • lacked ecological validity • doesn't show whether memory itself is altered.
Loftis & Palmer ( 1974 ) [ Speeding cars part 2 ] (EWT) •150 students -film of car crash - estimated speed •3 gropus - 'smashed', 'hit', 'control' •A week asked about broken glass • high estimate for smashed • reported glass in smashed • memory distorted - misleading information • lacks ecological validity • Supported by other research
Pickrell and Loftus (2001) ( Bugs Bunny ) ( EWT ) •120 participants asked to evaluate advert about Disney land • one ad had Bugs Bunny mentioned •All groups werevasked if theyvsaw Bugs Bunny • more participants in Bugs ad reported seeimg Bugs Bunny • ripple effect = false memories • real world applications • Supports Loftus' earlier study
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