Applying Social Psychology to Health - Changing Health Behavior

Tejaswi K
Flashcards by , created 9 months ago

Applying Social Psychology to Health - Changing Health Behavior by students of Smt. Maniben M P Shah College, Matunga, MA students - Psychology

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Tejaswi K
Created by Tejaswi K 9 months ago
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Question Answer
Changing Health Behaviors Focus on how to change unhealthy behavior in favor of healthy ones Three Most influential models • Health Belief Model • Theory of planned behavior • Transtheoretical model
HEALTH BELIEF MODEL Factors influencing Healthy behavior • Demographic factors • Early socialization to healthy habits • Economical factors • Access to health care system • Cognitive factors Capture (binary/octet-stream)
1• GENERAL HEALTH VALUE: Assumption that we have some interest and concern for our health and maintenance. 2• PERCEIVED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ILLNESS: Perception of health threat depend on our general knowledge about a particular disease and how it can be connected to us. 3• PERCEIVED SEVERITY OF ILLNESS: Knowing that we may be vulnerable to a disease is enough to make us change our behavior. A person should feel that the threat is serious enough to take some action. 4• EXPECTATION OF TREATMENT SUCCESS: Sometimes we underestimate the degree to which our health habits can affect us getting ill. If we attribute it to genetic predispositions we are less likely to develop healthy habit.
5• SELF EFFICACY: Originated by Bandure, it is a perception of whether or not we actually have what it takes to carry out a behavior. Self efficacy can lead us to develop healthy habits. 6• PERCEIVED BARRIERS AND BENEFITS: We do a cost benefit analysis to weigh the cost of changing health behavior against perceived benefits. One can overcome the barriers only if they feel that the outcome overweighs the behavior. 7• CUES TO ACTION: Events or messages that act as a triggers people to adopt healthy behaviors. Our own or someone else’s positive or negative experiences can lead to change in the behavior. RESEARCH - 1)Out & Lefreniere (2001)_ Study that employed a lifelike doll that stimulates functions of a real infant to see whether such exposure would modify adolescent’s attitude towards pregnancy.Results_ Accurate assessment of personal risk for an unplanned pregnancy by those who got the exposure. 2)Jackson & Aiken (2000) Result- Least partial support for health belief model with respect to diverse health behavior including use of sunscreen, dental care, dieting, etc
LIMITATION OF THE MODEL : • Not all studies have found supportive results and most investigations have found partial support • Some critics have argued that the model does not explain precisely the expected relationship among variables that influence health behavior. • Each study tends to use different operational definitions and ways of measurement. • Due to different methods of experimenting, results cannot be compared meaningfully.
THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR Ajzen 1991 • The way to change people’s behavior is to alter their Behavioral Intentions. • Behavioral Intentions are decided in advance and are best predictors of what people will do.
THREE BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS 1• Attitude Towards Behavior - * Beliefs about consequences * Evaluations of consequences 2• Subjective Norms About Behavior - * Beliefs about what other expect * Motivation to comply with norms
3• Perceived Behavior Control - * Individuals Perception of control over specific behavior. (influence by self- efficacy) Images (binary/octet-stream)
TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL Developed by Prochaska and DiClementc (1983,1986) Capture (binary/octet-stream)
•Stage 1. PRECONTEMPLATION -Not aware -Uninformed -No intention to change •Stage 2. CONTEMPLATION -Aware problem exits -Are thinking of making change within next 6 months. •Stage 3. PREPARATION -Ready to make a health change. -People who have made an unsuccessful change ,are preparing for next quit attempt. -Intention to take action to change.(eg. Smokers may cut down on the number of cigarettes they smoke per day in advance. •Stage 4 ACTION -Make modifications in their behavior (eg. Smokers will have quit and be completely abstaining from smoking.)
•Stage 5. MAINTENANCE (After 6 months) -Have made modifications. -Prevent relapse. Eg. Ex –smoker try to stay quit. •Stage 6 TERMINATION -100% self –efficiency -No temptation to return to the problem behavior . ADVANTAGES OF TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL. -It helps to explain why so many health interventions’ are unsuccessful . -It prompts us to consider individual differences in the design and executions of interventions. -It offers more optimistic picture of the outcome of relapse situation,where people revert to the negative health behavior they tried to change. -It provides a framework for tailoring health intervention to suit the current stage of each individual. -It enable health programs to tailor the messages and materials toa person’s current stage of readiness to change.
RESEARCH. -Conducted by-Prochaska, DiClemente Velicer and Rossi(1993). -To determine:whether programs matched to stage of change were more effective than other smoking cessation programs. -Assigned 756 smokers to four different conditions. a) Participant received smoking cessations manuals and booklets. b) participants received a series of manuals that were matched to their current stage of change. c) an computer report condition where participant received reports that describe their stage of change,individual feedback. d) A personalized counselor condition. -Overall pattern of results supports TTM in that intervention that were tailored to the characteristics of individual during each stage of change were found to be more effective than a standard “one size fits all approach.”
STRESS, COPING AND SOCIAL SUPPORT -focus on whether social psychology has anything to offer people who suffer from physical illness or symptoms of stress Two areas in which Health Psychology has made contributions to the way in which people experience illness and distress- 1. Stress and Coping 2. Influence of Social Support
STRESS AND COPING Stress experts have examined the process of stress and coping so as to help understand the source of stress in their lives and manage stress effectively Lazarus and Folkman defined Stress as “a particular relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well being” This definition reflects their approach, referred to as “Transactional Model of Stress”. Basic Idea – Experience of stress results from ongoing transaction between people and environment. Stages and components of Transactional Model of Stress
1. Stressors- During the course of the transaction people will encounter particular situation, events or other people that may or may not induce the feeling of stress. Capture 1 (binary/octet-stream) 2. Based on encounter with potentially stressful events people make Capture 7 (binary/octet-stream)
3. Coping –thoughts, feelings, and behavior that people engage in when trying to reduce stress a. Consistent with experience of stress is an individual phenomenon b. People differ in Coping strategies they use Capture 3 (binary/octet-stream)
> Effective coping – reduce the negative effects of stress > Ineffective coping – does not reduce the negative effects, might make it worse also affecting Health 4. Health Outcomes –Great deal of stress + poor coping skills = higher rate of illness Association between stress and other illness include headache,hypertension, diabetes, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis. Approach to measure stress - major life events that cause to undergo significant adjustments
HOLMES AND RAHE (1967) – SOCIAL READJUSTMENT RATING SCALE Include positive and negative events that require people to adjust or make lot of changes People who have experience high number of major life events : more likely to develop health problems Study to observe how both positive and negative events can cause stress. Research – by Cramer and Lafreniere (2003) – Study of the stress involved in stress in wedding preparation- 69 grooms to be & 188 brides to be-surveyed at a wedding exposition about the wedding plans & wedding related difficulties, degree of perceived stress, source of support available to them.- Bride – Stress : Family problems, Financial constraints, having an older groom. Groom – Stress : Financial constraints, larger wedding, young bride, fast approaching wedding.
Study – Minor annoyance also subjected to on a daily basis can cause stress and not just big events only LAZARUS AND COLLEGUES- relatively minor stressors that characterize everyday life can lead to negative health Outcomes HASSLES SCALE – include items about minor annoyance – neighbor problem, misplacing things etc Found that scores on this scale proved a better predictor of symptoms than did major life events.
Characteristics of events that make them more likely to be perceived as stressors • Negative events are more likely to elicit stress than positive outcomes. • Events that are more unpredictable or uncontrollable are ore likely to be seen as stressful than predicted or controllable events. • Being overloaded with tasks and having too much to do at the same time increases the likelihood that we will report being stressed out. • Events that are more vague and undefined tend to be perceived as more stressful than do straight forward clear-cut events
SOCIAL SUPPORT Given by Lafreniere and Colleagues’ (1997) Social support refers to the resources that we get from other people. • One aspect of conceptualizing social support examines the size of our social network and the number of links that we have to other people- Family, Friends, etc. • Another aspect of social support refers to the quality of relationships and to whom we can turn when we have problems or we are under stress.
Capture 4 (binary/octet-stream) RESEARCH - Conducted by- Hegelson and Cohen (1996) - To determine helpful and unhelpful aspects of social support for cancer patients. - Large no. of studies emotional support is important to cancer patients particularly spouses, family members and friends. Absence of emotional support is harmful. - Hegelson and Cohen’s review also revealed some interesting misconceptions that many people have about providing support to cancer patients.
Results- - From the perspective of cancer patients minimization of the problem , empty reassurances and forced cheerfulness were unhelpful behavior, as was misplaced empathy, that is, having people without cancer tell them ,’’ I know how you feel’ ’probably the most hurtful behavior reported by cancer patients. - To provide effective support to someone with a life- threatening disease it is important not to make assumption about what is helpful rather to find out what will be most beneficial from the patient’s perspective.
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