Human Geography

Kendra Leier
Flashcards by Kendra Leier, updated more than 1 year ago
Kendra Leier
Created by Kendra Leier over 6 years ago
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Flashcards on Human Geography, created by Kendra Leier on 12/16/2014.

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Question Answer
nucleated settlement villages/towns/settlements: people come together for religion, defence, abundance or scarcity of water, family, politics, resources, economics
How do Carol's 5 Stages apply to the development of setlements? Adaptation: People could not stay in one place very long, and had to adapt to new surroundings. Domestication: Upon domesticating plants and animals people could stay in one place, have more control of their environment, and create communities. Diversification: Humans gained more control over their environments. They were able to create a surplus of food and could set up markets. Mechanization & Automation: Nucleated settlements and specialized functions could be established in communities. Humans were self sufficient and could build market economies based on increased consumer demands.
What are some reasons for isolated farmsteads? No need for defence (peaceful state), private agricultural enterprise, economy dominated by livestock, government action to get people on the land (ex Canada & US), hilly terrain, abundant access to water
intensity theory More intense agricultural industries (dairy, eggs, vegetables) must be closer to the market. Land is more expensive but transportation costs are lower. Extensive industries (livestock, grain crops) need more land, and are found in areas with lower land costs, but higher transportation costs.
Constants of von Thunen's Agricultural Location Theory 1. There is only one city/central market. 2. All farmers sell their product there. 3. All farmers maximize profits. 4. All land around the market is uniform. 5. There is only one mode of transportation.
Crop theory Concentric zones radiate from the central market, each with a higher intensity required to maintain. Levels: market gardens/dairy, forestry/fuel, varying crops, livestock/ranching, wilderness
What are the 3 models of urban land use? Concentric Model Sector Model Multi-nuclei Model
What are the key concepts of Christaller's Central Place Theory? Explains the location, size & number of cities. Shows hierarchy of settlements. Explains the distance/cost people are willing to travel/pay for a product. Every good/service has a threshold (min. # of people required to support), and a range (max distance consumers are willing to travel).
What are the factors of industrial location? market, weight/bulk of product, multiplier effect, agglomeration, labour, access to power and raw materials, transportation costs, personal factors, political factors
Slum Area of over-crowded, poor quality shelters (temporary or permanent) because residents cannot afford to live elsewhere Characterized by poor sanitation, health, schooling, hazardous conditions, and over-priced goods. Generally near the city center.
Ghetto Area almost exclusively inhabited by one ethnic/cultural group. Not always defined by poverty, but many are as economic disparity keeps them there. ie. Ghettos of Cape Town or First Nations reserves. Historically-Jewish ghettos in Italy
Hidden structural unemployment Bungee suggests that similar to von Thunen's agricultural theory , but as a Rent model, - land closest to the center is most expensive. Cost of public transportation locks poor people in the slums, yet land costs (rent) is higher.
Where has been called the paradigmatic city for much of the 20th century? Chicago
Where to most geographers consider to be the post-modern paradigmatic city? Los Angeles
What are elements of post-modern urban centers? Less hierarchically structured zones. Central core replaced by urban peripheries City focused on global agencies rather than local ones. Non-linear evolution and chaos.
Dual city Occurs in post-modern urban settings where there is a great disparity of socio-economic status of the population. Some are very rich, and others are very poor, and they live in separated areas. Example: Los Angeles, New York
Hybrid city Occurs in post-modern cities, where cultural categories are changed, and their are new categories or none at all.
Model industrial villages Townships that were created to house workers of nearby factories (England has many examples: Lever Brothers soap, George Cadbury confectionaries)
The City beautiful movement Inspired by reaction to increased pollution and crowding of industrial cities. Propose wider streets, ringed road, integrated transport systems, uniform bldg height. Also introduced Garden Cities and Green belts (green space areas).
What does von Thunen's Agricultural Location Theory address? Attempts to address the question of where agricultural products should be located in relationship to the central market by suggesting concentric rings around the city of decreasing intensity but increasing in extensivity further away from the city.
What is the order of agricultural product location according to von Thunen? 1. Central market/city 2. Market gardens & dairies 3. Forestry & fuel 4. Continuous crops (no fallow) 5. Non-continuous crops (fallow required) 6. Livestock/ranching 7. Wilderness
What are criticisms of von Thunen's theory? 1. Does not factor in the environment - topography, climate, soil quality 2. Only has one market - unrealistic 3. Does not consider government policies (taxes, tarifs, barriers) 4. Does not consider advancements in transportation technology (efficiency, ability to refrigerate, etc.)
What does BJ Garner suggest as similar structures of cities? 1. Human activities reflect distance. 2. Decisions are made based on the least friction by distance. 3. Every city has some type of accessibility to the rest of the city. Prominent functions are closer to other functions. 4. Human activities tend to agglomerate to take advantage of cost savings. 5. There is a hierarchical nature and order to human activity. 6. All factors depend on human occupancy.
What is meant by the function of a settlement? While cities may exist to serve the needs of their population and the hinterland surrounding the city, the city may also serve a greater function to a larger area by providing a specialized service or product. Ex: Ottawa-government, Toronto-banks, Halifax-port access
What are the constants of Weber's Least-Cost Location theory? 1. Some raw materials are everywhere. 2. Most raw materials can only be found in specific locations (including energy). 3. Labour is only available in certain areas and workers are not mobile. 4. Markets are in fixed locations. 5. Cost of transporting raw or finished products is related to weight & distance. 6. There is perfect economic cooperation. No business/person can affect price. 7. Industries want to maximize profits and minimize costs. 8. Physical (topography, climate) and human (religion, culture, politics) geography are uniform.
What is the underlying principle of the Least-Cost location theory? Industries want to locate themselves in an area that provides them with the least cost for transportation, labour, agglomoration and deglomeration
Explain material index Products have a value related to their cost of transportation comparing their weight/bulk of raw materials vs finished product. If their material index is greater than 1, then the industry should be located closer to the raw material as the raw material is heavier/bulkier prior to production. If it is less than 1, the industry should locate near the market as the product gains weight/bulk in manufacturing.
What does Weber's theory suggest about labour? That even if an industry can find cheap labour, it will only be beneficial to locate there if the cost savings in labour are greater than the additional transportation expenses that would be incurred.
What are some criticisms of Weber's theory? 1. It is too unrealistic. 2. The assumptions are too simplified because markets cannot be fixed locations and labour markets are widespread and vary. 3. The model is only concerned with product cost rather than where the most profitable market is. 4. Does not account for deglomeration - industries desire to locate away from high rent areas and congestion 5. Does not account for competition of similar industries.
How are location figures helpful? Using Weber's theory, drawing geometric figures can help determine the lest-cost location for industries who need to access multiple resources.
Explain Bungee's Economic Rent Argument (3 cities) City of Death: Poor, third world diet, malnutrition, murder victims. Exploited by the rest of the city, specifically the outer ring. Taxed higher than outer ring. Machine tax - not paid a fair wage, Death Tax: goods cost more. City of Need: Intermediate. Working class homes. Exploited somewhat by the outer ring, but not as much as the inner zone. Better wages, conditions are better City of Superfluity: Home of the white collared, white professionals, entrepreneurs, business owners, managers, etc. Suburbs extract from the rest of the city. Will own slum properties to make more money, but will not invest in keeping them in good repair.
Colonial heritage Cities that were created by colonizers, typically along the coast for easy access. Organization (of buildings, government, community) and architecture reflects the colonizing country. Upon gaining independence many cities cannot keep up with the needs of the population without the support/economics of the colonizing country because there is no local industry.
Primate city Often former colonial capitals, which have become modern country capitals. Contain the majority of the country's population. Have a difficult time meeting the needs of the large population. Ex. Santiago, Chile Some countries, like Brazil, are trying to break this cycle by creating new capitals.
What is hyperurbanization? The rapid growth of urban centres. Often takes place in the primate city, which can be home to 30% of the country's population or more. The city's infrastructure cannot support the massive surge to the city. This results in squatter settlement slums of temporary residences full of impoverished people who create shelter out of whatever they can and run an informal sector of employment where they do work to survive.
What is political geography? How space/territory is organized into different environments under different cultural conditions. Organization and distribution of political (decision making) phenomena.
Explain the types/categories of political geography State: forms a federal government. Holds sovereignty over an area. Ex. Canada Nation: Can be associated with a state. It is a group of people with a common culture and territory (ex. Quebec) Nation State: A state whose territory coincides with the occupation of a group who shares a common culture, values, etc. Ex. Japan and Egypt. Canada does not fit here as there are so many groups with differing values and cultures.
Explain the Heartland Theory Developed by Mackinder. It is a theory that suggested that world power and domination could be had by controlling the the majority of land in the Eurasian heartland (Eastern Europe and most of Russia).
Explain the Rimland Theory Building upon Mackinder's Heartland Theory, American geographer, Spykman suggested that the world could be dominated by the one(s) controlling the Rimland (Western Europe, Scandinavia, Middle East, India, China and the rest of Asia).
What is geopolitics? The study of the roles played by space and distance in international relationships.
International power balance A domino theory that suggests if one political method comes into power, the others surrounding it will follow.
What are reasons for selection of a capital city? Defence (Turkey moved its capital away from the coastline) Symbolism (Brazil moved its capital to show it was moving the nation in a new direction) Overcome regional differences (Canada made Ottawa the capital to compromise between Montreal and Toronto)
What are the elements related to the morphology of state? Core (where the idea started) Ecumene (most densely populated area where over half the population is) Ex. Southern Ontario or Eastern US Capital (typically located in the core, and is often also the primate city-largest pop.) Boundaries & Frontiers (separations of territory - can be natural or artificially constructed)
Temporal dimension Classifications of borders. Explains if they were laid out before or after major settlement and development of landscape Antecedent: before Subsequent: after
What are some types of subsequent borders that are created? Ethnographic: Division of existing religious, language or cultural groups (ex. North Ireland and Ireland divides religion) Superimposed: boundaries forced by colonizing/ruling powers that do not consider pre-existing cultural patterns. (ex African country divisions have separated cultural groups/tribes and caused wars)
How are boundary lines developed? 1. Definition - agreement of location of the boundaries and allocation of land. 2. Delineation - mapping of the boundaries by cartographers. 3. Demarcation - marking the boundaries with physical features. Ex. Canada/US boarder - agreed upon the 49th parallel (and Great Lakes), marked on maps, marked out by thousands of posts and a physical gap between territory...which has its oddities!
Explain Centripetal and Centrifugal forces Centripetal forces bring groups of people together. Could be a shared leader, common enemy, or religion. Centrifugal forces separate people and could include religion, language, culture. Irony is that religion can both unite and tear apart states.
What is meant by "development"? The extent to which the resources (human and physical) of an area/region/country have been brought into productive use. Typically associated with economics. The ability for a country to feed, educate and shelter its inhabitants.
What assumptions are made about development? That it happens and can happen to all areas of the world. Many theories assume that if all countries followed the "western industrial" example, including its values, technology, ideologies, capitalism and strategies, that they too could develop in the same way.
Describe the "tickle down effect" Money begins in the hands of few who are most profitable. They employ others, who in turn, gain more money, who then can bring up others into the same economic status.
What is Rostow's model? It is a model of Economic growth. It suggests that a country will progress through 5 stages of economic progress. 1. Traditional society - ex. shifts began in the economy prior to the industrial revolution. 2. Pre-takeoff - more changes begin to take place. 3. Takeoff - big changes happen, especially in the areas of technology 4. Drive to maturity: technology continues to grow and develop, building up the economy. 5. High mass consumption: there are very advanced levels of production that result in a great surplus of products and wealth. Population has the ability to consume great quantities of product.
What are some problems with Rostow's Economic Development model? 1. Doesn't take into account that countries can move up and down the model. 2. Great bias towards western modernization. 3. There is no factoring of chance - access to natural resources. Ex. Northern Europe's access to coal during the Industrial Revolution or Argentina's excellent agricultural land. 4. Political and social structures are not accounted for. Unstable structures will not allow for growth.
What is meant by underdevelopment? Formerly meant that countries were not able to use recourses or provide for their populations. Now also includes concepts of exploitation and imperialism that prevent countries from developing to their potential.
What is Andre Frank's argument about development? Current situations do not resemble past situations of western development in underdeveloped countries. Western nations were never underdeveloped, just un-developed. They were not exploited. Poorer countries have been and continue to be exploited by wealthier nations. Underdeveloped countries do not want to be like Western nations.
How can underdeveloped countries move ahead? Must cut ties of imperialism. The satellite and core-periphery models have to stop. Ex. British control over colonies, Multinational corporations colonialist and imperialistic control over smaller nations.
What are dependency theories? Ideas that if underdeveloped countries continue to be exploited by wealthier countries and multinational corporations that they will continue to need their support because without it they would not have technology, land, or money. Underdeveloped countries rely on the jobs provided as they feel they do not have anything without external support.
What is globalization? An increasing interdependence, integration, and interaction among people, government and industries around the world. A shift of focus from the local level to the global level in technology, economics, trade and politics. Rising consumerism and popular culture spur on changes and determine popular trends. Shows the gap widening between the rich and the poor.
Who sees globalization as a positive thing? Neo-liberalists & Conservatives Suggest little involvement by governments, believe in the market. See globalization as a means for providing opportunity. Suggest it promotes multi-culturalism and spreads prosperity (trickle down). Everyone shares in environmental concerns.
Who sees globalization negatively? Left-wing Liberals Suggests globalization perpetuates exploitation of underdeveloped countries, and threatens jobs and communities. Say it's detrimental to the environment due to wide spread consumerism.
When did globalization begin? Some say post-WWII, but advancements in technology have been growing globalization for centuries. Certainly the pace of globalization has increased over time due to rapidly changing technology. Examples: Industrialization, Telecommunications, Transportatation and Automotive technology, gold standard for financial base, restructuring of trade
How has the idea of globalization changed in the last 40 years? Major increases in Information and Communications technology - Electronic revolution. Information is literally at your fingertips - can be both useful and harmful Triumph of major multinational corporations - control the media, global products, and culture Spread of neo-liberal ideology where the market rules and governments have little say.
What are some consequences of globalization? Everyone has access to the same things. Geography is about difference - what happens if we are all the same? De-localization of landscapes - lack of identity as malls & box lands all look the same! Local looses autonomy - no longer has its own unique identity Allows companies to produce far from their markets, because the world is now the market.
What will happen to geography as a result of globalization? Although some effect of globalization appear to reduce or eliminate individuality, it is all a matter of scale, and all things can be examined at many scales. There are always winners and losers. Global changes affect different areas in different ways, so there is always a local aspect to any change. New kinds of cities are being created - global cities who have less reliance on governments. Cities have more power. Creates new concepts like Glocalization.
What is glocalization? Examining the local level while still being connected globally. Cities are gaining more power and are making connections with other cities around the world. Establishes areas where local and global meet - at regional levels to create new trade arrangements, and global corporations adapt to meet the needs of the regional preferences - Ex. McDonald's - you can get a Big Mac and fries anywhere, but there are regional specialties also.
What are the assumptions of Central Place Theory? 1. Land is a flat, endless plain. 2. The region has a uniform distribution of rural population with uniform behaviour. 3. There is a homogenous mode of transportation to move people and products in all directions. 4. 1-3 are part of a preliminary landscape in a developing area that will continue to develop.
What are some drawbacks to Central Place Theory? 1. Based on a flat plain 2. Changes in technology are not accounted for. 3. Personal preference is not accounted for. 4. Agglomerations are not considered. 5. Element of chance is not available. Some things are not planned and just happen in the right place at the right time. 6. Resource availability is not considered.
What does Blumenfeld suggest as differences between industrial and pre-industrial cities? 1. They are bigger (10 times bigger) 2. Modern cities combine several functions. Pre-industrial cities often had one major function, now there are several. 3. The commuter zone is 100 times bigger due to the automobile. 4. Socio-economic ladder is more flexible. 5. There is a separation of work and home, whereas before you'd live above your work place. 6. There is a mix of land uses in the city.
Basic function vs non-basic function of cities Basic = bring money into the city (outside sales) Non-basic = circulate money within the city (sell products to people within the city)
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