Edexcel Chemistry chapter 19

Anna Bowring
Flashcards by , created over 4 years ago

Chapter 19 from the edexcel chemistry textbook

Anna Bowring
Created by Anna Bowring over 4 years ago
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Question Answer
What is the general formula for Alkanes? CnH2n+2
What is the general formula for Alkenes? CnH2n
Draw and name the first five alkanes. 94d13c54-3673-4626-97e1-4d8a00eb863f.jpg (image/jpg)
Draw and name the first four alkene carbon atoms. dab744a2-672b-4f19-bac1-b14b01a1c465.png (image/png)
Write the equation for the complete combustion of methane. CH4(g) + 2O2(g) -> CO2(g) + 2H2O (l)
What is incomplete combustion, and why is it potentially dangerous? Incomplete combustion is when there isn't enough O2 to react with the hydrocarbon. Therefore instead of producing CO2, it produces either CO (carbon monoxide) or C2 (soot). It is potentially dangerous because if CO combines with haemoglobin, it prevents them from carrying O2.
What additional reactions do Alkenes undergo? They undergo addition reactions called the addition of Bromine. It's where part of the double bond breaks and the electrons are used to join other atoms onto the two carbon atoms. It adds to alkenes without the need for heat or a catalyst. Often carried out using a bromine solution.
What is fermentation? Fermentation is the production of Ethanol. Yeast is added to a sugar or starch solution and left in warm temps. (30*-40*) for several days in anaerobic conditions. The enzymes in the yeast convert sugar to ethanol and CO2.
Explain the biochemistry of Fermentation. The sugar (sucrose) is split into two smaller sugars, glucose and fructose. Overall equations for the reactions: C12H22O11(aq) + H2O(l) -> C6H12O6(aq) + C6H12O6(aq) C6H12O6 -> 2C2H5OH(aq) + 2CO2(g)
Define and give an example of an isomer. Isomers have the same molecular formula, but have different structures. Glucose and Fructose are isomers.
What is the hydration of Ethene? It is reacting Ethene with steam to produce Ethanol. CH2 = CH2(g) + H2O -> CH3CH2OH(g)
What are the advantages of manufacturing ethanol by fermentation? - It uses renewable resources, therefore it is better for the environment and there is a constant and infinite supply - It uses gentle temperatures and ordinary pressure
What are the disadvantages of manufacturing ethanol by fermentation? - It takes several days for each batch to be produced which is inefficient - it produces very impure ethanol which will need further processing
What are the advantages of manufacturing ethanol by the hydration of ethene? - It's a continuous flow process, so therefore it's more efficient - It's rapid so more ethanol is produced - It produces a much purer ethanol, so it doesn't have to go through anymore processes after
What are the disadvantages of manufacturing ethanol by the hydration of ethene? - There is a finite resource of crude oil - It's bad for the environment since it has to use high temperatures and high pressures, which needs a big input of energy
Describe the dehydration of ethanol to make ethene. Ethanol vapour is passed over hot aluminium oxide acting as a catalyst. 7c17fce9-cb8a-4554-b3db-f04dbdcc2248.png (image/png)