IB Biology: The Chemistry of Life

fatimaiqbal101
Flashcards by fatimaiqbal101, updated more than 1 year ago
fatimaiqbal101
Created by fatimaiqbal101 over 5 years ago
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Flashcards on IB Biology: The Chemistry of Life, created by fatimaiqbal101 on 01/15/2015.
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4 elements that make up 96% of living matter carbon oxygen hydrogen nitrogen
4 elements that make up the remaining 4% phosphorus calcium sulfur potassium
weak bonds hydrogen bonds hydrophobic & hydrophilic interaction van derwaals forces
strong bonds covalent bonds
covalent bond a shared pair of electrons stable bond
multiple covalent bonds double bonds triple bounds
non polar covalent bond pair of electron shared equally by 2 atoms
polar covalent bond pair of electrons shared unequally by 2 atoms ex. water + and - poles
hydrogen bonding polar water creates molecular attractions attraction between + H and - O weak bond
properties of water cohesion & adhesion good solvent lower density as a solid high specific heat high heat of vaporization
water: cohesion H bonding between H20 molecules Ex. surface tension
adhesion H bonding between H2O and other substances water sticks to other polar molecules Ex. capillary action, meniscus
solvent polarity makes H2O a good solvent
hydrophilic substances that have attraction to H2O polar
hydrophobic substances that don't have an attraction to H2O non-polar
density of water water is less dense as solid (ice) than as a liquid
why is ice's density important surface ice insulates the water below if ice sank the entire mass of water would be ice after some time
specific heat H2O resists changes in temperature energy is absorbed when H bonds are broken water moderates the earths temperature
heat of vaporization heat is added but once the temperature reaches 100 degrees Celsius the temperature will stay the same even when more heat is added
water vs. methane water melting point: 0 degrees celcius boiling point: 100 degrees celcius methane melting point: -182 degrees celcius boiling point: -160 degrees celcius
ionization and pH of water H+ splits off from H2O leaving OH H+ = -OH nuetral H+ > -OH acidic H+ < -OH basic
buffer a reservoir of H+ to keep the pH of a cell at 7
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