Anthropology Flashcards

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CHEM ANTH Flashcards on Anthropology Flashcards, created by itzel.jm on 01/23/2015.

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Question Answer
What is evolution? A change in inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
What is a continuous proof that evolution is happening? The appearance of a new species
What are three levels of biological organization? Species, individuals and molecules (DNA, proteins)
What is MACRO evolution? changes after many generations (e.g. speciation)
What is MICRO evolution? small genetic changes that occur within a species
Evolution is a theory that? -is supported by vast/ever-growing body of evidence -has been thoroughly tested -never been falsified -has been confirmed by emerging genetic evidence -has stood test of time -is a scientific fact, subject to continuing refinement
Pre-Darwinian Western world view First stage 1.STASIS 2.Fixity of Species (Christianity) 3.Great Chain (Aristotle)
What does Fixity of species (Christianity) mean? means all life forms were created by God exactly as the exist in the present
What does Great Chain of Being mean? all life forms can be places in a hierarchy from simple to complex with humans at the top
What does this represent? The great chain of being
What component does the Pre-Darwinian western world view, Second stage has? 2.EARTH IS YOUNG
On the 2nd Stage of Pre-Darwinian western world view, which character was involve? and how did he contribute? Archbishop James Ussher (1581-1656) who analyzed Genesis and estimated that the Earth began Sunday, October 23rd, 4004 B.C.
Where does life comes from claim by Aristotle Life as a ""? and means? Life as a "SPONTANEOUS GENERATION" The Aristotelian "abiogenesis" which means that life comes from inanimate matter
What changes did the scientific revolution brought? -change our thinking about the world and its inhabitants -scientific method developed, including experimentation -discovery of North and South America, challenged fundamental views about the planet -increased biological awareness due to discovery of new plants & animals
Which characters were involved in the scientific revolution (chronological order) ? 1.COPERNICUS(1473-1543) 2.GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642) 3. FRANCESCO REDI (1626-1697) 4. CAROLUS LINNAEUS (1707-1778) 5. GEORGES-LOUIS LECREC, COMTE DE BUFFON(1707-1788) 6.GEORGES CUVIER (1769-1832)
HOW DID COPERNICUS CONTRIBUTED TO THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION? WHERE IS HE FROM? POLISH MATHEMATICIAN HELIOCENTRIC HYPOTHESIS : CELESTIAL BODIES ORBIT AROUND THE SUN
WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE DIAGRAM? COPERNICAN HELIOCENTRIC THEORY DIAGRAM
IMPORTANT PHILOSOPHICAL IMPLICATIONS MADE BY COPERNICUS -THE EARTH AS NO LONGER THE CENTER FROM WHICH THE HEAVENS REVOLVE AROUND - HUMANS NO LONGER FOCAL POINT OF THE UNIVERSE
WHERE IS GALILEO GALILEI FROM? ALSO CALLED? IMPORTANCE IN SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION? ITALIAN PHILOSOPHER, ASTRONOMER, PHYSICIST. -"FATHER OF MODERN ASTRONOMY" -SUPPORTED COPERNICUS -UNIVERSE AS A PLACE OF MOTION -DISCOVERIES RELATED TO PLANETS MOONS AND STARS -PLACED UNDER HOUSE ARREST FOR IDEAS
"FATHER OF MODERN ASTRONOMY" ? GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642)
FRANCESCO REDI IS FROM? EXPERIMENTS DEMONSTRATE THAT? ITALIAN NATURALIST (1626-1697) EXPERIMENTS DEMONSTRATED THAT LIFE COMES FROM LIVING MATTER
WHOSE EXPERIMENT IS THIS? WHAT DID IT CONCLUDED? FRANCESCO REDI (1626-1697) 1.MAGGOTS DO NOT FORM SPONTANEOUSLY ON MEAT BUT FROM EGGS OF FLIES 2.MAGGOTS DIE WITHOUT THE MEAT
FOR EARLIEST LIVING MATTER IT MUST HAD COME FROM ORGANIC OR INORGANIC (MATTER)? INORGANIC PREDECESSOR
What is evolution? A change in the inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
What is natural selection? Mechanism of evolutionary change (competition, variation in traits, and inheritance of traits)
What is adaptation? Trait shaped by natural selection for a current function in the organisms environment
What is selection pressure? ecological and other forces that influence the reproductive success of an individual
What is reproductive success? # of offspring one produces that reach reproductive age HIJOS QUE PUEDAN REPRODUCIR MAS HIJOS
What is fitness? Individuals relative genetic contribution to the next generation
What is the phenotype? -observable characteristics of organisms -same genotypes can be expressed as different phenotypes
What is the Genotype? -Underlying genetic make/up of an organism -Particular combination of genes or alleles in an individual
What is an Allele? Alternative form of gene
A much more apt term for NATURAL SELECTION will be? "EVOLUTION BY VARIATION AND SELECTIVE RETENTION"
What are Darwin 3 postulates? 1.Struggle for existence 2.Variation in fitness 3.inheritance variation
Who is Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)? where from? also know as? contributions? -swedish naturalist -"Father of taxonomy" -introduced a scheme for a hierarchical classification of living species -Author of SISTEMA NATURAE
What binomial nomenclature did sistema naturae publish, e.g., H.? "GENUS SPECIES" E.G. HOMO SAPIENS
THE SYSTEMA NATURAE IMPLIED THAT HUMANS WERE PART OF WHICH KINGDOM? ANIMAL KINGDOM (CONTROVERSIAL!!)
WHO IS GEORGES-LOUIS LECLERC, COMTE DE BUFFON (107-1788) -FRENCH NAUTRALIST - HISTOIRE NATURELLE -LES EPOQUES DE LA NATURE (EARTH AGED QUESTIONED) -SPECIES CAN CHANGE AS CLIMATE CHANGES, BUT CANNOT GIVE RISE TO NEW SPECIES -PROVIDES CONTEXT, NOT MECHANISM, FOR SPECIES CHANGE
WHAT DID THE HISTOIRE NATURELLE BY LECLERC CONTRIBUTED WITH?? -DIFFERENT REGIONS HAVE DIFFERENT PLANTS AND ANIMALS DESPITE SIMILAR ENVIRONMENTS -SPECIES DISTRIBUTIONS DEPEND ON BOTH GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
WHAT DID THE LES EPOQUES DE LA NATURE BY LECLERC (1707-1788) QUESTIONED? QUESTIONED AGE OF EARTH
WHERE IS GEORGES CUVIER FROM? WHICH IDEA/ TERM DID HE COINED? WHAT DID HE CONTRIBUTED WITH? -FRENCH NATURALIST -"CATASTROPHISM" -CONTRIBUTIONS TO VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY AND COMPARATIVE ANATOMY
WHAT DID GEORGES CUVIER (1769-1832) USED FOSSILS FOR? USING FOSSILS TO STABLISH EXTINCTION AS A FACT
3 POINTS ABOUT CATASTROPHISM BY GEORGES CUVIER (1769-1832) ARE? CATASTROPHISM 1. SUDDEN & SEVERE CHANGES TO AN ENVIRONMENT CAN WIPE SPECIES OUT 2.SPECIES FROM OTHER AREAS WILL REPOPULATE(IMMIGRATION, NOT CREATION/EVOLUTION) 3.OPPOSED TO THE IDEA OF CHANGE IN SPECIES(EVOLUTION)
WHO ARE DARWIN INFLUENCES (4)? 1.ERASMUS DARWIN (1731-1802) (DARWINS GRANDFATHER) 2.JEAN-BAPTISE LAMARCK (1744-1829) 3.THOMAS MALTHUS (1766-1834) 4. CHARLESLYELL (1797-1875)
WHO IS ERASMUS DARWIN? CHARLES DARWIN GRANDFATHER PROPOSED ZOONOMIA
WHAT DOES ZOONOMIA CONSIST IN? SPECIES MAY HAVE EVOLVED FROM COMMON ANCESTOR
ZOONOMIA IS ALSO AN ANTICIPATED IDEA OF NATURAL SELECTION BY? ERASMUS DARWIN (1731-1802)
WHO LACKED CONVINCING MECHANISMS FOR THE TRANSMUTATION OF SPECIES? ERASMUS DARWIN (1731-1802)
WHAT ARE JEAN-BAPTISTE LAMARCK MAIN IDEAS? -HE ADVOCATE FOR? -THOUGHT OF ENVIRONMENT & ANIMALS.. -CHANGES, & OFFSRPING?? -EARLY ADVOCATE OF EVOLUTION OF SPECIES -AS ENVIRONMENT CHANGES, ANIMALS CHANGE THROUGH USE/DISUSE OF STRUCTURES -ACQUIRED CHANGES ARE PASSED ONTO OFFSPRING
CLASSIC LAMARCKIAN EXAMPLE
JEAN-BAPTISE LAMARCK DESERVES CREDIT FOR? BUT WHAT WAS INCORRECT IN HIS STUDIES? -CREDIT FOR EVOLUTIONARY THEORY, COMPLETE WITH MECHANISM -MECHANISM WAS INCORRECT
WHO IS THOMAS MALTHUS? POLITICAL ECONOMIST / DEMOGRAPHER ESSAY ON PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION
THOMAS MALTHUS(1766-1834) POPULATION GROWTH? EXPONENTIALLY IN TIMES OF PLENTY, BUT EVENTUALLY ARE CHECKED BY FAMINES, DISEASE.ETC.
THOMAS MALTHUS (1766-1834) SOCIAL ILLS CAUSED BY(2)? -THE OVERPRODUCTION OF CHILDREN -MORAL IRRESPONSIBILITY OF "LOWER CLASSES"
WHAT IS MALTHUS IMPACT ON BIOLOGY? 2 IDEAS OVERPRODUCTION COMPETITION
WHAT DOES OVERPRODUCTION BY THOMAS MALTHUS REFERS TO? POPULATIONS PRODUCE MORE OFFSPRING THAN WHAT CAN SURVIVE
WHAT DOES COMPETITION BY THOMAS MALTHUS REFERS TO? COMPETITION FOR LIMITED RESOURCES
WHAT DID CHARLES LYELL (1797-1875) CONTRIBUTED WITH? (2) -PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY -UNIFORMITARIANISM
WHAT IS UNIFORMITARIANISM BY CHARLES LYELL? -SMALL PROCESSES THAT INFLUENCE EARTH TODAY, INFLUENCED INT HE PAST -CHANGES TO EARTH OVER SLOW GRADUAL PROCESSES OVER VERY LONG TIME -SUGGESTS EARTH IS VERY OLD
WHERE IS CHARLES DARWIN FROM? UNITED KINGDOM
CHARLES DARWIN IDEAS OF GEOLOGY AND SPECIES, AND CHANGES? SPECIES AND GEOLOGY ARE NOT FIXED THOUGH TIME SLOW CHANGES OVER TIME
WHAT ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE REMEMBERED FOR? INDEPENDENTLY DEVELOPED IDEA OF NATURAL SELECTION SENT DRAWING DRAFT IN 1858 BEFORE DARWIN PUBLISHED HIS OWN VERSION OF THE IDEA
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