Issues of reliability & validity

Flashcards by , created about 6 years ago

A-Levels Psychology (Schizophrenia) Flashcards on Issues of reliability & validity, created by OliviaBridge on 23/02/2013.

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Created by OliviaBridge about 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Outline the 4 positive symptoms of Schizophrenia? - Delusions -Experiences of control -Hallucinations -Disordered thinking
Outline the 3 negative symptoms (loss) of Schizophrenia? TRIPLE A -Affective flattening (reduction in emotions) -Alogia (poverty of speech) -Avolition (lack of motivation)
Outline Carson's beliefs about the DSM III. Carson - DSM III fixed problems of inter rater reliability - Provided a more reliable system for classifying mental illness (SZ)
What did more recent studies (2001) about the diagnosis of SZ find? Low inter rater reliability of +.11 (Low positive correlation)
How did Rosenhans study highlight the unreliability of the classification & diagnosis of SZ? 'Normal' people went to psychiatric ward - claiming hearing voices/words (thud/hollow/empty). ALL participants were admitted to the ward diagnosed & treated for SZ.
What happened in Rosenhans follow up study? - Rosenhan told hospitals he'd be sending out more 'pseudopaitents'. - Hospitals - 21% detection rate - No participants were sent to the hospital
What are the ethical issues associated with Rosenhans studies? Psychological/Physical harm - Time spent in the ward & Unnecessary treatment (Side effects: Tardive Dyskinesia) Deception - towards hospitals (Follow up study)
Outline another study which found issues with the reliability of the diagnosis of SZ. 50 senior psychiatrists - differentiate between bizarre/non-bizarre symptoms. Inter rater reliability +0.40 (Diagnosis - subjective to psychiatrists interpretation) Lacks reliable method
Outline three common co-morbidities in SZ that affect the validity of diagnosis. -Substance abuse -Anxiety -Depression
State the two statistics which Buckley estimated. - Depression occurs in 50% SZ patients - 47% patients lifetime diagnosis of co-morbid substance abuse.
How do co-morbid illness impact upon the diagnosis & treatment of SZ? Co-morbid illnesses may cause or impact upon that symptoms/characteristics of SZ. - Poor levels of functioning - result of untreated co-morbid physical disorders.
What did a study of 6 million hospital records find? Many non-psychiatric diagnoses. Medical problems - type 2 diabetes - Being diagnosed with mental illness SZ lead to lower standards of medical care = poor levels of functioning
What did Klosterklotter's assessment of positive/negative symptoms in terms of the validity of diagnosis find? Study - 489 admissions - Positive symptoms more valid in the diagnosis of SZ
Outline how the prognosis & symptoms of SZ vary significantly. - SZ rarely have same symptoms - Prognosis - 20% recover to previous functioning - 30% recover with intermittent relapses Lacks validity = varies significantly
Outline why there are higher rates of SZ found in African Caribbean's (compared to white counterparts). - Harrison SZ 8x higher A.C groups - Increase = poor housing/social isolation OR - Cultural differences (Language/Mannerisms)