Flashcards by heathermarye, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by heathermarye about 6 years ago


A quick overview of all topics in the AS ICT syllabus, except databases :)

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is Data? Raw facts and figures that don't make sence on their own
What is Information? Data that has been processed within a context to give it a meening
What is Knowledge? The understanding of rules needed to interpret theinformation
How can data be collected? Directly or Indirectly (Primary and secondary) e.g. Data from sensors or marketing based on your spending habits.
What is coding Data? Before being stored in a computer data can be coded e.g. M or F
Name 3 benefits of coding data Less storage space required Faster Input Validation is easier
Name 2 disadvantages to coding data Precision of data can be lost - Coarsened The user needs to know the codes used
What is GIGO? Garbage In Garbage Out The quality of the information you get out depends on the quality of the information you put in
What is a Value Judgement? Someones personal opinion These can differ between individuals
Name 3 factors that influence the value of Information Up-to-date Fit for intended use Accurate
What 3 ways can good quality information be used for? Maximize sales Make good management decisions Cut Costs
What factors make data costly to obtain and keep up-to-date? How its COLLECTED How its INPUT PROCESSING the information Data MAINTENANCE
When do data errors occur? Processing Input Transcription Transmission
What is Validation? A check that is performed by a computer to ensure that it is reasonable
What is verification? Checking that the input data is the same as the source
Name the 6 validation checks Presence Digit Format Range Data Fixed Value
Examples of verification Double entry Proof reading
Name the 6 advantages of ICT Speed of processing Speed of searching Repetitive processing Vast amount of data can be stored Produce different output formats (e.g.tables) Accuracy/speed of data communications
5 Factors that effect the efficiency of data processing systems Hardware Software Effects of Communications Effects of Input Suitability of operating systems
What is CAD? Computer aided design - Allows the user to make accurate drawings
Name 4 features of CAD Layering 3D drawing and walk through Rotation/Zoom Wire Drawing
Advantages of CAD Easily stored and transferred 3D Available Easily altered Can manipulate Image
What is CAM? Computer aided manufacturing - this can use the drawing from CAD software and create it using machines
Advantages of CAM Cheaper Faster Better Quality Lower wage cost Machines can be re-programed
Hardware requirements for CAD and CAM Good Graphics card Speed of processor Memory
Definition and examples of EFT Electronic funds transfer - can be made by credit, debit cards, Paypal, online purse
Advantages of EFT to both customer and the store Faster payment Quick to enter in card details Faster deliver - improved turnover
Disadvantages of EFT to both customers and store Impulse purchases/mistakes Fraud of credit cards online Not everyone has a computer Expensive to set up payment systems
What is e-commerce? Online shopping - people can now shop from the comfort of their own homes
The main parts of an E-commerce system Catalogue Shopping basket Checkout Payment
Advantages to e-commerce Always accessible - 24/7 Global marketplace Easily updated Search facillities
Disadvantages of E-commerce Lack of exercise Unemployment Problems (delivery, payment) Security issues
What is EPOS? Electronic point of sale - where people pay for goods. E.g. Keyboards, touch screens, magnetic strip readers, Bar code readers
Where are bar codes used? Warehouse stock control Parcel tracking systems Goods in a supermarket
Advantages and disadvantages of Bar Codes Fast Low printing cost Accurate Expensive Restricted amount of data- only mumbers
What are the uses of automatic Stock control? To monitor and adjust the stock level to keep consumers happy Automatically re-orders stock when its low Items have a limited shelf life
What is JIT? Just in time - The idea that good are being bought as quickly as they are being sold.
Advantages of JIT Smaller stores can be used - not as much storage required Can respond to changing demand Easier to cope with smaller deliveries
Disadvantages of JIT More staff for admin are required Expensive to introduce Theft and damage may alter true stock
What is CAL? Computer assisted learning - Using a computer interactively for education
What is CBT? Computer based training - using a computer interactively for training
Features of CBT and CAL Distance Learning Interactive Whiteboards Video Conferencing Chat rooms E-Learning Revision Programs
Examples of School administration methods OMR - Paper record that is then read by a scanner RFID Tags - Radio frequency tag Smart cards Retina/Bio metric Scanner
Advantages to using ICT to record attendence Detains are almost real time Less burden on teachers Exact time is recorded - late pupils Quicker
Disadvantages to using ICT to record attendance Expensive Privacy and human right issues Need a system of back up
Problems with paper based records Storage space required Handwriting hard to read Notes get lost Prescriptions not readable
Advantages of electronic patient record keeping Available wherever there is a terminal Only one set of data required security is improved
Advantages of an electronic prescription Quicker Much more accurate and therefore safer
Features of patient identification They are given a wrist band with a bar code that contains their name, date of birth, blood group and NHS Number
The stages of the blood tracking process 1. Blood is taken and tested 2. Stored by National blood transfusion service 3. Bags are labeled with a bar code 4. Matched blood is sent to the hospital 5. Bags are scanned and put in fridge 6. Staff remove blood after scanning their ID badges 7. Blood taken from the fridge is scanned 8. Blood is taken to the ward. Both patient and blood are then scanned 9. If blood is a match then the transfusion is given
Advantages of blood tracking Provides an audit trail Saves time - no paper records No human errors Stock Control
Name several types of sensors used in healthcare temperature, pulse, heart rate monitor, blood sugar, Brain activity
Advantages of sensors No missed measurements Measured in 'real time' Can make spotting trends easier
Disadvantages of sensors Machines can break down Equipment can be expensive
Features and uses of MRI scans Magnetic resonance imagery - uses magnetic and radio waves Computer model builds up a picture Used for blood vessels, analyzing organs functions, joints
Features and uses of CAT scans Computer axial tomography - a complex x-ray machine Used to produce images of bone, muscle, fatty tissue
Benefits of scanning Can be used to prevent disease Faster Diagnosis Plan for operations
Disadvantages of scanning Equipment is complex and expensive Can be dangerous for staff (CAT scans) Can break down
Definition of a neural network Creating a computer that processes information like a human brain They use parallel processing Artificial Intellegence
Name the 3 components of an expert system Knowledge base Inference System User Interface
Advantages of an expert system Stores more information Doesn't forget or make a mistake Can keep it up to date Available 24/7 Provides accurate predictions and advise
Disadvantages of an expert system No common sense Too much reliance on computers Information put in must be correct
Uses of ICT in the home Gaming Photography Email Music Pay to view Shopping/Booking Mobile Phones
3 Special features of music in the home MIDI - musical instrument digital interface Notators - allows you to write music Sequencers
The choices of format rely on...? Needs of the user Complexity of the information Material to be presented online
Features of word processing and DTP software A template Mail merge Style sheet Importing Macros
What is the difference between home and professional DTP Software? Home software is useful for producing small layouts where as professional software has many more features for creating more complex layouts
Advantages of WP and DTP software Ability to draft Presentation is enhanced Files can be sent as attachments View documents online
Disadvantages of WP and DTP Initial expense May require some training Expensive hardware (storage space, graphics card)
Presentation software features Templates Creating a show Animation Importing files Exporting data
Features of Web authoring software Hyperlinks Formatting Animations Frames HTML
Define a stand alone computer a computer that is not connected to any other computer
Advantages of stand alone computers Less viruses less IT knowledge required Cheaper hardware and software Less hardware dependent
Disadvantages of stand alone computers Transfer of files difficult Hard to keep up to date Harder to update software Back ups need to be kept by each user
Definition of a network A collection of computers and other hardware devices that are all linked in together
Advantages of a network Ability to share files, software and hardware Improved security Improved communication Central maintenance and support
Disadvantages of a network Technical knowledge is required Dependent on the file server Cost
Define LAN Local area network - A network confined to a single building or site
Define WAN Wide area network - spread over a large geographical area. Third party telecommunications are usually ussed
Define Internet A huge group of networks all joined together Contains the WWW (world wide web)
Define Intranet An internal private network that allows employers to access information resources
Define Extranet An intranet that is open to certain groups of people outside of the company
Benefits of email Fast to send You can send attachments Quick to write No need to leave the house Cheaper than a letter
Disadvantages of Email Junk mail Not everyone has internet Relies on people checking their email Equipment is expensive
Services available on the internet FTP - File transfer protocol - a method of receiving/sending files Newsgroups Chat rooms Online databases Search engine
Define HCI Human computer interface - describes the way that humans interact with computers
Examples of HCL Voice recognition Touch sensitive screens Speech synthesis Biometric
Health issues associated with ICT Repetitive strain injury Eye strain Back pain ELF - extra low frequency radiation Stress
Define, with examples, Malpractice Improper or careless practice E.g. Not logging off, giving away passwords
Define, with examples, Crime All act that are against the law E.g. copyrighting music
Define the Computer Misuse act 1990 3 levels of crime; Unauthorised access Unauthorized access with intent Unauthorized changing or deleting files
Copyright and designs patents act 1988 Illegal to copy a file without permision
Sages of Data protection act 1998 Purpose EU Relevant Secure Own right Necessary Accurate Lawfully
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