Psychology CLEP


Based on the Modern States' CLEP preparation course
Abigail Campbell
Flashcards by Abigail Campbell, updated more than 1 year ago
Abigail Campbell
Created by Abigail Campbell almost 5 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
psychology scientific study of human behavior
structuralism understanding structure and characteristics of the mind
Functionalism William James and Edward Titchner study of conscious experience and components
Biological Approach physiological and biochemical explanations (genes, nervous system, hormones, neurotransmitters)
Behavioral Approach Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner learned responses predict pattern of behavior
Psychodynamic Approach Sigmund Freud unmet needs and childhood conflict determine personality
Cognitive Approach behaviors based on "expectations", "feelings", and "thoughts"
Humanistic Approach Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers People are motivated by growth and development
Research Methods Experimental cause and effect between two variables
independent variable the "cause" being manipulated
dependent variable measured for change the "effect"
Clinical studying people
case studies individual in depth study
Naturalistic obsevation observing without manipulation
clinical interview sitting down and interviewing a person
Correlational How two variable relate
Surveys group of people self reporting
Endocrine system glads throughout the body that secrete hormones
hormones chemical messengers that regulate bodily functions
pituitary gland master gland
Etiology biological explanation for mental problems genetic and hereditary malfunctioning brain chemistry
serotonin mood, emotional state, sleep
dopamine attention, movement, pleasure
agonist drug raises neural activity
antagonist drug lowers neural activity
action potential electrical signal that moves down the neuron axon
adrenal gland sits atop kidneys and secretes hormones involved in stress response
all-or-none phenomenon that incoming signal from another neuron is either sufficient or insufficient to reach the threshold of excitation
allele specific version of a gene
amygdala limbic system. Tied to emotional response and memory
autonomic nervous system (ans) controls inner organs and glands
biological perspective psychological disorders are associated with imbalances in neurotransmitter systems
Central NS brain and spinal cord
cerebellum controls balance, motor skills, thought to be important in processing some types of memory
cerebral cortex surface of brain
chromosome long strand of genetic info
fight or flight response sympathetic division of ANS allowing access to energy and heightened sensory capacity
gene sequence of DNA controls physical characteristics
genetic environment correlation genes affect environment and environment influences expression of genes
hippocampus associated with learning and memory
psychotropic meds drugs that treat psychiatric symptoms by restoring neurotransmitter balance
reuptake neurotransmitter is pumped by into neuron that released it
Somatic NS relays sensory info to and from CNS
ventral tegmental area midbrain structure where dopamine is produced
sensation what happens when sensory info is detected by sensory receptor
perception way the sensory info is interpreted and consciously experienced
psychophysics study of the level of intensity we can detect stimuli how sensitive we are to changes in stimuli how psychological factors influence our ability to sense stimuli
psychological factors motivation, past experience, expectation, impact notice of stimuli
selective attention more meaningful ideas stick. construct meaning out of sensation (smell reminds you of childhood)
somesthesis body's sense of touch (skin, kinesthetic, vestibular sense)
olfaction sense of smell
gustation taste
vestibular motion, spacial awareness, equilibrium
ecological (nature) perceptual development from birth and fine tuning
constructivism (nurture) Perception through learning and experiences
depth perception see distances between us and objects
binocular cues both eyes
retinal disparity seeing slightly different views with each eye (binocular cue)
monocular cues one eye
linear perspective seeing things converge to one point. i.e. a road narrowing the farther away it gets (monocular cue)
motion parallax (relative motion) movement of a stable object when we move
interpositon one object partially blocks another
texture gradient closer one is to an object the more course and the farther away the smoother it looks
perceptual cues a view we always have that is shaped by experiences
sensory restriction senses restricted in childhood. We learn senses while young
perceptual set perceive one thing over another
consciousness state of awareness
circadian rhythm body's natural cycle
rhythms of sleep 1) alpha waves 2) theta waves 3) delta waves 4) slow wave sleep 5) REM
insomnia trouble sleeping
hypersomnia fall asleep and cannot wakeup
narcolepsy random sleep attacks
sleep apnea loose oxygen to brain while asleep
Freud's theory of dream disguised desire manifested in dream
activation-synthesis theory dreams are a constructed story to explain images from random neural activity
information-processing theory dreams are a way to process information
hypnosis induced state of consciousness
meditation awareness, practice of acknowledging content of mind
psychoactive drug effects produce a different state of consciousness by mimicking, inhibiting, or stimulating neurotransmitters
depressants slows down neurotransmitters
stimulants raises neuron activity
hallucinogens distort and add sensations mimic neural activity
reflexes unlearned motor/neural reaction
instincts innate behavior triggered by events
assiciative learning form of learning that involves connecting certain stimuli or events that occur together
Classical conditioning learning in which the stimulus or experience occurs before the behavior and then gets associated with the behavior
conditioned response response caused by the conditioned stimulus
conditioned stimulus stimulus that elicits a response due to its being paired with an unconditioned stimulus
extinction decrease in conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the conditioned stimulus
fixed interval behavior is rewarded after a set amount of time
fixed ratio set number of responses must occur before behavior is rewarded
unconditioned response unlearned behavior to a given stimulus
unconditioned stimulus stimulus that elicits a reflexive response
variable interval behavior is rewarded after unpredictable amounts of time
variable ratio number of responses differs before a behavior is rewarded
positive punishment adding an undesirable stimulus to decrease behavior
positive reinforcement adding a desirable stimulus to increase behavior
vicarious punishment observer sees model punished making observer less likely to imitate model's behavior
vicarious reinforcement observer sees model rewarded, making observer more likely to imitate model's behavior
shaping rewarding successive approximations toward a target behavior
operant conditioning form of learning in which the stimulus/experience happens after the behavior is demonstrated
latent learning learning occurs but is not realized until there is a reason to demonstrate it
algorithm problem solving strategy characterized by a specific set of instructions
analytical intelligence aligned with academic problem solving and computations
anchoring bias faulty heuristic in which you fixate on a single aspect of a problem
availability heuristic faulty heuristic in which you make a decision based on info readily available to you
cognition thinking, including perception, learning, problem solving, judgement, and memory
cognitive psychology studying every aspect of how people think
cognitive script (even schema) set of behaviors that are performed the same way each time
confirmation bias faulty heuristic in which you focus on into that confirms your belief
convergent thinking providing correct or established answers to problems
creative intelligence ability to produce new products, ideas, or inventing a new, novel solution to a problem
creativity ability to generate, create, or discover new ideas, solutions, and possibilities
crystalized intelligence acquired knowledge and ability to retrieve it
cultural intelligence ability to which people can understand and relate to those in another culture
divergent thinking ability to think "outside the box" to arrive at novel solutions to a problem
dysgraphia leaning disability that causes extreme difficulty in writing legibly
dislexia leaning disability in which letters are not processed properly by the brain
emotional intelligence ability to understand emotions and motivations in yourself and others
fluid intelligence ability to see complex relationships and solve problems
functional fixedness inability to see an object as useful for any other purpose than what it was designed to do
mental set continually using an old solution to a problem without results
multiple intelligence theory Gardner's theory that each person has at least 8 types of intelligence
represetitibe bias faulty heuristic in which you stereotype someone or something without valid basis for your judgment
heuristic mental shortcut that saves time when problem solving
hindsight bias belief that the event just experienced was predictable, even though it wasn't
role schema set of expectations that define the behaviors of a person occupying a particular role
schema mental construct consisting of a cluster of related concepts
standard deviation measure of variability that describes the difference between a set of score and their mean
standardization method of testing in which administration, scoring, and interpretation of results are consistent
triarchic theory of intelligence Sternburg's theory of intelligence; three facets: practical, creative and analytical
working backwards heuristic in which you begin solving a problem by focusing on the end result.
trail and error problem solving in which multiple solutions are attempted until the correct one is found
emotion subjective state of being often described as feelings
canon-bard theory of emotion physiological arousal and emotional experience occur at the same time
cognitive-mediational theory out emotions are determined by our appraisal of the stimulus
components of emotion physiological arousal, psychological appraisal, and subjective experience
facial feedback hypothesis facial expressions are capable of influencing our emotions
james-lang theory of emotion emotions are from physiological arousal
schachter-singer two factor theory of emotion emotions consist of two factors: physiological and cognitive
motivation wants or needs that direct behavior toward some goal
extrinsic motivation motivation that arises from outside factors or rewards
intrinsic motivation motivation based on internal feelings rather that outward rewards
self-efficacy individual's belief in his own capabilities or capacities to complete a task
yerkes-dodson law simple tasks are performed best when arousal levels are relatively high while complex tasks are best performed when arousal is lower
theory of cognitive development (john piaget) four stages: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational
Psychosexual theory of development (frued) oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Erik Erikson's stages of psychosociol development 8 stages: trust vs mistrust, autonomy vs shame and doubt, initiative vs guilt, competence vs inferiority, identity vs role confusion, intimacy vs isolation, generativity vs stagnation, integrity vs despair
Physical development development that examines growth and changes in the body and brain, the senses, motor skills, and health and wellness
stage of moral reasoning (Kohlberg) humans move through three stages of moral development: pre conventional, conventional, and post-conventional
gender identity sense of whether you are male or female
gender dysphoria discomfort with biological sex
analytical psychology Jung's theory focusing on the balance of opposing forces within one's personality and the significance of the collective unconscious
collective unconsciousness common psychological tendencies passed down from one generation to the next
congruence state of being which our thoughts about our real and ideal selves are very similar
displacement defense mechanism in which a person transfers inappropriate urges or behaviors toward a more acceptable or less threatening target
ego aspect of personality that represents the self, or part of personality that is visible to others
id aspect of personality that consists of our most primitive drives or urges including impulse for hunger, thirst, and sex
superego aspect of personality that serves and one's moral compass or conscience
five factor model theory that personality is composed of five traits, including: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism (OCEAN)
incongruence state of being in which there is a great discrepancy between our real and ideal selves
individual psychology Adler's school of psych that focuses on out drive to compensate for feelings of inferiority
internal locus of control belief that we have the power to control our own outcomes
external locus of control belief that our outcomes our outside our control
personality long standing traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in a specific way
projective test personality assessment in which a person responds to ambiguous stimuli, revealing hidden feelings, impulses, and desires
real self who we actually are
reciprocal determinism belief that one's environment determine behavior but at the same time people can influence urges and behaviors for their opposites
regression defense mechanism in which a person confronted with anxiety returns to a more immature behavioral state
repression defense mechanism in which anxiety related thoughts and memories are kept in the unconscious
sublimation defense mechanism in which unacceptable urges are channeled into more appropriate activities
psychopathology study of psychological disorders
disorders conditions characterized by abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
DSM-5 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th ed.
Depression sadness, loss of pleasure, hopelessness, worthlessness
major depressive disorder (dx) characterized by sadness and loss of pleasure
seasonal pattern subtype of depression in which a person experiences the symptoms of major depressive dx only during a particular time of year
persistent depressive dx characterized by a chronically sad and melancholy mood
bipolar dx mood disorder characterized by mood states that vacillate between depression and mania
manic episode period in which individual experiences mania, characterized by extremely cheerful and euphoric mood
anxiety dx characterized by excessive and persistent fear and anxiety and by related disturbances in behavior
generalized anxiety dx characterized by a continuous state of excessive, uncontrollable, and pointless worry and apprehension
panic dx anxiety dx characterized by unexpected panic attacks, along with at least one month of worry about panic attacks or self-defeating behavior related to attacks
obsessive-compulsive dx tendency to experience intrusive and unwanted thoughts and urges and/or need to engage in repetitive behaviors or mental acts
somatic delusion belief that something highly unusual is happening to one's body or internal organs
hypochondriasis preoccupied with bodily symptoms, a fear of illness or disease, and cannot be reassured by a doctor
conversion dx belief that one is experiencing a neurological symptom with no medical proof
phobias irrational fear of an object or event
agoraphobia intense fear, anxiety, and avoidance of situations in which it might be difficult to escape if one experiences symptoms of a panic attack
schizophrenia sever dx characterized by major disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior with symptoms that include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking and behavior and negative symptoms
hallucination perceptual experience that occurs in the absence of external stimulation
delustion belief that is contrary to reality and is firmly held, despite contradictory evidence
catatonic behavior decreased reactivity to the environment
negative symptoms decrease and absences in certain normal behaviors, emotions, or drives
dissociative amnesia inability to recall important personal info
dissociative fugue amnesia in which a person suddenly wanders away from one's home and experiences confusion about his/her identity
dissociative identity dx a person exhibits two or more distinct personalities or identities and experiences memory gaps
depersonalization/derealization people feel detached from the self and the world feels artificial and unreal
paranoid delusion characterized by beliefs that others are out to harm them
antisocial personality dx lack of regard for others' rights, impulsivity, deceitfulness, irresponsibility, and lack of remorse over misdeeds
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