# GAMSAT

Flashcards by Becky Monks, updated more than 1 year ago Created by Becky Monks about 6 years ago
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### Description

Flashcards on GAMSAT, created by Becky Monks on 02/07/2015.

## Resource summary

 Question Answer Refractive Index (n) Defined for each medium as (velocity of light in a vacuum)/(velocity of light in the medium) Fast/less dense medium = low n Slow/dense medium = high n n1/n2=sin02/sin01=v1/v2=wavelength1/wavelength2 with the angle taken in respect to the normal (vertical line) Therefore a ray closer to the normal (smaller angle) means a larger n Wave Refraction (wavelength, frequency, etc) Less dense > more dense high velocity > low velocity long wavelength > short wavelength H/E frequency does not change Refractive Index (n) is inversely proportional to wavelength Wavelength=velocity/frequency Which bulb is brightest? Whichever bulb has the highest current Parallel Circuits Same voltage across all bulbs Current is split 1/Total R = 1/R1 +1/R2 +.... Series Circuits Same current across all bulbs Different voltage drops across bulbs Total R = R1+R2+... Force between two charges Electric Field F/q OR kQ/r^2 Ohm's Laws V=IR P=IV Density mass/volume Pressure force/area Force of buoyancy density x volume x gravity (for the liquid) NB: this is equal to the force of gravity acting on the floating objecy Kinetic Equations acceleration = change in velocity/time displacement = v.t + 1/2.a.t^2 Moles mass/molar mass Ammeter placed in series very low resistance measure current Voltmeters placed in parallel very high resistance measure voltage Lenses Focus rays at a focal point (in front of lens for converging and behind for diverging) Concave lens = diverging Convex lens = converging Magnification M = -image distance/object distance = image height/object height +M = erect virtual image -M = inverted real image Equilibrium Constant products/reactants Unaffected by concentrations or catalysts (only push reaction back and forth) Increased temperature causes lower K pH -log[H+] How many H+ ions in a low/high pH? low pH = lots of H+ high pH = less H+ Acid Disocciation Constant (Ka) Equilibrium constant for the acid High Ka = highly reactive = strong acid pKa = -logKa low pKa = strong acid (less than -2) Galvanic cells Cathode - reduction (positive) Anode - oxidation (negative) *the red cat ate an ox* If E(oxidant) - E(reductant) > 0, the reaction is spontaneous Gibbs Free Energy -G = spontaneous reaction when G = 0, the reaction is at equilibrium Vapor pressure Pressure of escaped gas particles above a liquid Increased temperature causing increased vapor pressure When vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure, the liquid boil Gas Laws volume is proportional to 1/pressure volume is proportional to temperature volume is proportional to no. of moles nb: when mixing gases Ptotal=P1+P2+... Gas Diffusion Big molecules diffuse slower so rate of diffusion is proportional to 1/(square root of molar mass) First order reactions Depend on conc. of one reactant Rate = k[A] Has an exponential curve So graph of ln[A] is a straight line with gradient -k Alcohols -OH "-ol" primary - carbon bonded to one other carbon secondary - carbon bonded to two other carbons tertiary - carbon bonded to three other carbons Aldehydes -CHO on end "al" (ie. "al"l I want is this one carbon) Ketones -CO on middle carbon "one" (ie. I want to "own" this whole chain) Amines NH2 on end carbon "amine" Carboxylic Acid -COOH on end carbon "-oic acid" Amides -OCN- "-amide" Esters -COO- in middle "-yl -oate" Amino acid NH2 and COOH Aromatic Contains a benzene ring Alkene double carbon bond "ene" Alkyne Triple carbon bond "yne" Ether -C-O-C- "-ether" Organic Chem Prefixes meth 1 eth 2 prop 3 but 4 pent 5 hex 6 hept 7 oct 8 non 9 dec 10 Geometric Isomers Form in rings and double bond structures Cis - same side Trans - opposite sides (aka Z&E) Enantiomers Isomers with different mirror images Contain chirality centers (carbon with 4 different substituents) Diastereomers Stereoisomers that aren't mirror images Must have more than one chiral center No. of diastereomers = (no. CC)^2 Meso Compounds Mirror images that are superimposable, despite having a chiral center Caused by a plane of symmetry Chiral Center Orientations Number each substituent according to value of atomic no. Place lowest substituent at back (usually H) Draw circle from 1 to 3 Clockwise = R (or D) Anticlockwise = S (or L) (like a steering wheel) Fischer projections horizontal line - out of page vertical line - into page You can turn a projection 180degrees or fix an atom and rotate other atoms around it Hybridization sp - linear - 180degrees sp2 - triagonal planar - 120degrees sp3 - tetrahedral - 109.5degrees Specific weight weight per unit volume (N/m3) =density x gravity Specific gravity (relative density) density of substance/density of water (usually equal to density as density of water = 1g/ml) Half life Used in exponential decay FInal amount = initial amount x (0.5)^t/n t=time n=halflife How many degrees in 1 kelvin? 273 Molality no of moles of solute/kg of solvent Molarity no of moles of solute/L of solution Maxwell Distribution Distribution of particle speeds in an ideal gas for a give temp. Speed vs no. of particles Most probable speed - speed at top of the curve Increasing temperature flattens out the curve H/E x & y intercepts remain the same Trends in atomic radii on periodic table Increases down a group Decreases across a period Raoult's Law (vapor pressure above a solution) Vapor pressure of a solvent above a solution = Mole fraction of the solvent x Vapor pressure of pure solvent Momentum & Impulse Momentum = mass x velocity Impulse = change in momentum = force x time Bernoulli's principle (fluid pressure) Increasing fluid velocity causes fluid pressure to decrease i.e. if a pipe gets smaller, the velocity will increase therefore the pressure will decrease Grignard Reagents R-Mg-X where X is a halogen This forms a delta negative carbon (very unusual because carbon is usually delta positive!) so it can be used to form carbon-carbon bonds Prepared by reacting a halogenoalkane (R-Br) with Mg in the presence of a diethyl ether Must be dry (grignard reagents react with water) Carbonyl Group carbon double bonded to oxygen Acid Anhydride Isobutyl, sec-butyl and tert-butyl groups 1-methylethyl = isopropyl Nitrile nitrogen triple bonded to carbon Convex mirrors Always produce virtual, erect and reduced images Image distance is negative Phase diagrams Temp of phase transition vs. pressure of system Special for water because increased pressure = decreased MP Why does ice float? Because ice is less dense than water Molecules are held further apart by hydrogen bonds Centripetal acceleration In circular motion - acceleration is toward centre of circle (when v is constant) If velocity is changing, this adds another vector Endothermic/Exothermic reactions Endothermic - absorbs heat so positive total Energy change Exothermic - emits heat so negative total energy change Increasing the temperature of a reaction at equilibrium will push the reaction in the endothermic direction and vice versa Give the atomic number and electron configuration of: H He C O Cl and F H: 1, 1s1 He: 2, 1s2 Carbon: 6, 1s2 2s2 2p2 Oxygen: 8, 1s2 2s2 2p4 Chloride: 17, 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 Fluoride: 9, 1s2 2s2 2p5

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