Cells: Basis of Life


A summary in the form of key cards on cells as the basis of all life, and everything that goes with it.
Lila de Wet
Flashcards by Lila de Wet, updated more than 1 year ago
Lila de Wet
Created by Lila de Wet over 4 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Anatomy of a Microscope Ocular lens Body tube Nose piece Arm Objective lens Clips Stage Condenser unit & iris diaphragm Fine focus screw Coarse focus screw Light source/mirror Metal base
Calculating Magnification Total magnification = ocular x objective Actual specimen size = size of image ÷ total magnification
Plant cell parts - Intercellular space - Chloroplast - Cell wall - Rough ER - Ribosomes - Cytoplasm - Vacuole - Smooth ER - Plasmalemma (membrane) - Mitochondrion - Dictyosome (collects/transports proteins) - Nucleus - Nuclear membrane - Nucleolus - Chromatin Network - Nucleoplasm - Nucleopore
Animal cell parts - Golgi body (formed by Dictyosomes) - Smooth ER - Chromatin Network - Centriole (cell division) - Nucleopore - Nucleolus - Nuclear membrane - Plasmalemma - Nucleoplasm - Cytoplasm - Mitochondrion - Nucleus - Vacuole - Rough ER - Ribosomes
Cells Structure (all cells) - Cell membrane* thin boundary layer, enclosing cytoplasm - Cytoplasm* thick, jelly-like liquid holding particles/structures - Nucleus control centre, with Chromatin Network - Organelles single unit structures with metabolic functions *together form PROTOPLASM
Cell Wall - PRIMARY CELLULOSE CELL WALL permeable provides shape - SECONDARY LIGNIN CELL WALL permeable to gases & water strength & protection - MIDDLE LAMELLA made of pectin (joins cells together) - PITS pores: communication & transport - PLASMODESMATA threads of cytoplasm that run through pits & join cytoplasm to other cells (communication & transport)
Structure & Function of Cell Membrane - Cell membrane: forms organelles - Phospholipid bilayer: surrounds & protects cytoplasm - Carrier proteins: control substance movement - Channel transport proteins: control substance movement - Organelles: allow specific metabolic reactions to occur together - Carbohydrates: cell recognition - Modified parts: relative functions
Cell Membrane FLUID MOSAIC MODEL - Selective permeablity - Has a complex structure with different functions
Special Structures of Cell Membrane - Microvilli: Incr. surface area for absorption - Pinocytic Vesicles: produced in pinocytosis to take up LIQUIDS - Phagocytic Vesicles: produced in phagocytosis to take up PARTICLES using PSEUDOPODIA
Fluid Mosaic Model - Carbohydrates - Phospholipid bilayer: hydrophobic lipid tail hydrophyllic phosphate head - Cholesterol - Proteins: Carrier Channel Peripheral Integral
Processes of Movement through Cell Membrane Diffusion Osmosis Facilitated transport Active transport
Simple Diffusion - Passive process (membrane need not be alive) - Non-selective (move along concentration gradient) - E.G. O₂, CO₂, water
Osmosis (Facilitated Diffusion) - Living membrane - Selective permeability & CHANNEL proteins - Passive process - Moves along concentration gradient (with channel protein) - ONLY water
Facilitated Transport - Living membrane - Selective permeability & CARRIER proteins - Passive process - Moves along concentration gradient (with carrier protein) - E.G. glucose
Active Transport - Living membrane - Selective permeability & CARRIER proteins - Active process (cellular respiration provides ATP energy) - Move against concentration gradient - E.G. Na & K ions
Processes for Taking up Nutrients & Removing Waste - Endocytosis (taking in nutrients/food) - Exocytosis (removing particles/metabolic waste)
Nucleus - "Brain" with info to make PROTEINS & ENZYMES
Structure of Nucleus - Double nuclear membrane: encloses & protects chromatin network - Nucleopores: controls movement - Nucleoplasm: fluid making up body of nucleus - Chromatin Network: strands of DNA - Nucleolus: dense mixture of DNA, RNA & proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - An organelle in the cytoplasm - Connects cell membrane and nuclear membrane
Cytoplasm - A fluid body - CONTAINS the organelles - Medium of movement between cells
Ribosome (organelle) - Attached to ER - Spread throughout cytoplasm - Site of protein synthesis
Vacuole (organelle) - Plant = 1 Lrg Animal = Many Sml - Selective permeability of TONOPLAST (membrane) - Tonoplast provides turgidity & controls movement of substances
Functions of Vacuole (organelle) - Phagocytosis: takes up food - Pinocytosis: takes up fluids - Lysosome (peroxisome): contains peroxidase - Contractile vacuole: controls water content
Mitochondrion Structure (organelle) - Double membrane: smooth outer folded inner - Crista: site of ATP synthesis - Matrix: fluid with compounds for cellular respiration
Golgi Body (animal)/ Dictyosomes (plant) - Linked to ER - Sort & store cellular secretions - E.G. Enzymes
Plastids (in plants only) - Leucoplasts: store substances in mature plants, with little sun exposure - Chromoplasts: RED & YELLOW pigments - Chloroplasts: GREEN coloured cells in plants & algae
Chloroplast: Structure - Double membrane - Stroma - Granum - Inter-granum lamella - Thylakoid - Chlorophyll
Chloroplast: Functions Main function is PHOTOSYNTHESIS - Double membrane: smooth, for easy movement - Stroma: inner fluid of compound, enzymes & starch - Granum: stacked thylakoids for incr. surface area - Inter-granum lamella: membranous bridges connecting grana - Thylakoid: membrane structures with cholorophyll - Chlorophyll: green light-sensitive pigment needed for photosynthesis
Centrioles - "Anchors" to separate chromosomes during division - All living animals have a centrosome - 2 centrioles = 1 centrosome
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