SACE Stage 2 Biology - Cells

Ben Goetze
Flashcards by Ben Goetze, updated more than 1 year ago
Ben Goetze
Created by Ben Goetze about 6 years ago
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Flashcards on SACE Stage 2 Biology - Cells, created by Ben Goetze on 03/05/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Multicellular Consists of many cells (e.g. animals, plants)
Unicellular Consists of One Cell (e.g. bacteria)
Tissue A tissue consisting of only one type of cell e.g. muscle tissue
Organ Consist of two or more tissues forming a structure with a particular function e.g. muscle tissue
Organ Systems Organs working together e.g. cardiovascular system
Organism Individual Creature
Structure of Cell Features of Cell
Function of Cell What the cell does
Differentiation The activation of particular genes in stem cells so they develop particular structures to carry out particular functions
Organ systems that constitute the body Circulatory Respiratory Excretory Nervous Digestive Reproductive
MRSGREN Movement Respiration Sensetivity Growth Reproduction Excretion Nutrition
Cell Theory All living things consist of cells and the products of cells. All cells arise from pre-existing cells
Surface Area A measurement of the exposed portion of an object (measured in m^2)
Volume A measurement of the interior of an object
Implications of SA/V ratio in cells As cells increase in size, it becomes more difficult for them to provide nutrients and to remove wastes by diffusion. This means surface exchange becomes less efficient, limiting the effective size of cells
Prokaryotes Small, 10micrometers, no true nucleus, no membrane bound organelles e.g. bacteria
Eukaryotes Larger - 50-100 micrometers, true membrane bound nucleus, membrane bound organelles. May form multicellular organisms e.g. plants, animals
Nucleus Double Membrane bound structure within which is the DNA in the form of chromosomes. The nuclear membrane has pores through which RNA can pass
Mitochondria Double membrane structure within which aerobic respiration takes place. Also contains a small level of DNA. Large internal surface area
Chloroplast Double Membrane structure that contains DNA. It is mainly found in plants and is the site for photosynthesis.
Vacuole Single membrane sac like structure that stores materials. Large sap vacuole in plant cells.
Golgi Body Stack of membranes where proteins are packaged for export from cell Vesicles (small vacuoles) break off containing proteins to be exported from cell
Ribosomes Don't contain membranes, rather made from RNA. Where proteins are synthesized.
Endoplasmic Reticulum A system of membrane pathways through the cytoplasm of a cell. Provides surface area for cellular reactions and a transport pathway. Some sections have ribosomes on the surface so called Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, other sections lack ribosomes so called smooth
Gene Section of the DNA code that determines the structure of a particular protein
Evolution The change in organisms over generations
Endosymbiotic Once Cell living within another, both gaining benefit Small cell engulfed by a larger cell. Gains protection from from larger cell and gives it some benefit.
Cytoskeleton Network of proteins through cytoplasm connecting cellular components. Can cause membrane to move
Fluid Mosaic Model Fluid - Membrane is a dynamic structure, components can move. Mosaic - Membrane consists of different components e.g. Phospholipids and proteins
Polar Head Charged so attracts water molecules
Hydrocarbon Tail Hydrophobic - repels water
Endocytosis Membrane invaginates forming a vacuole with materials from outside the cell e.g. Nutrients
Exocytosis Vacuole fuses with cell membrane and contents are expelled out of cell
State 3 Functions of the cytoskeleton Control cell shape, Move Organelles, Enable Cell movement, Enable endo/exocytosis
Intracellular Inside Cell
Extracellular Outside Cell
Cells Take in: Nutrients: Glucose, Amino Acids and Oxygen
Cells expel Wastes e.g. Urea and Carbon Dioxide
They regulate Water balance by controlling water molecules and ions
The internal composition of the cell is regulated to: Provide the ideal conditions for the metabolism (biochemical reactions) of the cell. e.g. pH, water balance, oxygen, glucose
Bilipid Layer Barrier to H20, only allows lipid soluble substances through e.g. O2
Proteins: Some provide pathways for water molecules and those dissolve in water.Others provide specific pathways for particular molecules e.g. Glucose, ions
Passive Transport No energy input required. Substances move from a higher concentration to a lower concentration along a concentration gradient. e.g. Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, Osmosis
Active Transport Requires input of energy. Substances moved against a concentration e.g. active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis
Diffusion Molecules move randomly causing collisions with each other. These collisions will tend to spread molecules apart unless confined. Given time, in a sealed container, molecules will spread out evenly.
Osmosis The passive movement of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane Solvent - e.g. Water Solute dissolves in water e.g. Na+ and Cl- ions from NaCl
Facilitated Diffusion This is where a protein provides a specific pathway across the membrane - called a carrier protein e.g. for glucose
ATP Short term energy storage compound in cells that can provide energy when and where it is required
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