Brain structures

Flashcards by , created over 4 years ago

Includes localisation of function of the brain and uses of brain imaging techniques.

Created by grenouilleverte3 over 4 years ago
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Question Answer
What case study is related to localisation of function in the brain and would be used to introduce an SAQ on this topic Phineas Gage - damage to frontal lobe caused personality to change
What does having damage to Wernicke's area mean? You will be able to produce (usually unintelligible) speech but cannot understand it
What does having damage to Broca's area mean? You can understand speech but cannot produce it
Who did Broca study in a case study to show evidence for localisation of Broca's area? 'Tan' - could not produce speech but could understand it normally. - after his death a post-mortem examination showed damage to Broca's area -1861
What is localisation of function of the brain? Determining a specific function to a specific area of the brain
What is lateralisation of the brain? Determining a specific function for on of the hemispheres (left/right) of the brain
What are the two hemispheres of the brain joined by? Corpus callosum
When was Sperry's study conducted? 1968
What does Sperry's study provide evidence for? Localisation of the corpus callosum - connects the two hemispheres so that information can be passed from one to the other
How many split-brain participants were there in Sperry's study? 11
Give an overview of the Sperry study -Participants had one eye covered and told to look at a fixed point on a screen -Participants heads in vice -Pictures projected onto screen in either left or right visual field very quickly -Participants asked to either draw or say what they saw
What were the results of Sperry's study? If asked to say what they saw in right visual field the could as language is lateralised to left hemisphere. If in left, could not say but could draw and vice versa.
Give 5 evaluation points of Sperry's study Small Sample High ecological validity - real split brain participants Temporally valid due to slow human evolution Can infer cause and effect Task doesnt reflect real life
What do MRI scans measure? Oxygen levels in blood in the brain - more oxygen = higher activity in certain place
How do PET scans measure brain activity? Injecting a radioactive substance which binds to glucose in the blood, acting as a tracer for where there is more glucose = higher activity
Give three advantages and disadvantages of PET scans Helpful in research Clear picture of brain activity Gives scientific evidence Radioactive substance = harmful Not as precise as fMRI Reductionist
When was Raine et al. study carried out? 1997
What did Raine et al. aim to find and what kind of brain imaging technique did they use? PET scans. Whether there is a difference in brain activity between murderers and non-murderers
What were all murder participants pleading in their court-case? Not-guilty for reasons of insanity
How many participants and what age? 41: 39 male, 2 female Average age 34
What were the control and non-control group matched on in Raine et al's study? Age, gender and whether they have schizophrenia
Outline Raine et al's study Participants underwent a PET scan whilst undertaking a Continual Performance Task (CPTs show brain activity in frontal, temporal and parietal lobes) Monitored for 32 minutes after being injected with the radioactive marker 30 seconds into the test
What were the results of Raine et al's study? Performance for the CPT was the same for control and non-control groups Significant difference in frontal lobe glucose metabolism - murderers had less Murderers had asymmetrical activity in the amygdala