Genetics and evolution

Flashcards by , created over 4 years ago

International Baccalaureate Psychology (Biological level of analysis) Flashcards on Genetics and evolution, created by grenouilleverte3 on 03/28/2015.

Created by grenouilleverte3 over 4 years ago
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Question Answer
When was the Holland et al. study carried out? 1984
Who were the participants of Holland et al's study? 34 twin pairs - 30 female and 4 male and one set of triplets. One of the pairs must have been diagnosed with AN
How was it made sure that the twins were actually twins? Physical resemblance questionnaire and if still unsure, blood test
How was the study carried out? Researchers followed the twins over time to see whether the twin without AN would develop it.
How was the AN diagnosed? Clinical interview with standard DSM criteria
What were the findings of Holland et al's study? Concordance rate for MZ female twins was 56% compared to 7% for DZ twins. In 3 cases where the non-diagnosed twin did not develop AN, they did develop another psychological disorder/minor eating disorder None of the males developed AN
When was the Gottesman and Shields study carried out? 1966
Who were the participants of the G&S study? 57 pairs of MZ and DZ twins where one had been diagnosed and/or hospitalised with schizophrenia
What were the results of the G&S study? Concordance rates for MZ twins were 48% and for DZ twins it was 17%. As genetic relatedness decreased,as did concordance rates.
What evaluation point says that other factors may have had an impact other than genetics? Reductionist - Upbringing and drugs and other things could have greatly influenced this
What study determines the genetic influence on intelligence? Minnesota twin study by Bouchard et al (1990)
Longitudinal study began when? 1979
How many hours of testing and interviews did the twins undergo before concordance rates were determined? 50
How many hours of testing and interviews did the twins undergo before concordance rates were determined? 50
What are the concordance rates? 87% - same person tested twice 86% - MZ twins reared together 76% - MZ twins reared apart 55% - DZ twins 47% - biological siblings reared together
What was the mean age of the participants in Minnesota twin study? 41
What percentage did Bouchard et al determine the heritability of intelligence to be? 70%
Give 5 evaluation points of the Minnesota twin study Assumption that twins share 100% of environment Lots of supporting evidence Very large sample size Volunteer sample = biased Many environmental influences may impact intelligence (socio-economic status)
What findings support influence of socio-economic influence on intelligence? Moving a child from low to high socio-economic status increased their IQ score by 12-16 points
What is the conclusion of all the genetic studies? Diathesis-stress model - inherit genetic predisposition and an environmental trigger is needed for the behaviour to develop.
What is the conclusion of all these genetic studies? Diathesis-stress model - inherit genetic predisposition and an environmental trigger is needed for the behaviour to develop.
What issues are there with genetic research? Stigma, labelling, causing worry by diagnosis, confidentiality with rare disorders, psychological harm (through knowing your genetic information), self-fulfilling prophecy, reductionist, determinist, can lead to Eugenics and racism/discrimination, measurement issues (etic)
What is 'The Bell Curve' and when was it published? A book published in 1994 stating that white americans have a higher IQ than black Americans "IQ has more of an effect on future life experiences that SES" - Scarr and Weinnberg found that 130 black/interracial children had higher than mean IQ score when adopted by wealthy families
What is evolutionary theory? The theory that we have developed behaviours through natural selection over time
Which gender has greater parental investment and why? Females - must undergo 9 months of pregnancy and lactate at early stages of baby's life - men can fertilise egg then leave
How many participants and countries/cultures and what was the mean age in Buss's evolutionary study of the origins of attraction? 1990 - 9000+ pts from 37 countries and 33 cultures. Mean age of 23.15
What were the 3 sections in Buss's survey? 1- biological data 2- Details such as age you wish to marry/age of spouse 3- Rated 18 characteristics (dependability) on a 4 point scale
Give 4 examples of characteristics that females found preferable for males? Dependability Height Age High social status
Give 4 examples of characteristics males found preferable for females? Lustrous hair Youth Facial and body symmetry Curvaceous body shape
What is the evolutionary explanation for female mate choice preferences? High parental investment means they need a man who can defend and provide, so traits such as high socio-economic status, old age (stability), good health all suggest that the man will be able to do this and increase chance of survival of offspring
What is the evolutionary explanation for male mate choice preferences? Due to lack of parental certainty, males need to produce as many offspring as possible so look for women with good reproductive ability (increase chance of viable offspring). Traits related to beauty and health/youth suggest this.
What are 3 big problems with the evolutionary theory? Doesn't explain exceptions - not all mothers are younger than the father of their child, and doesn't explain homosexual couples Is reductionist - oversimplifies mate choice Determinist - no choice? why don't we fancy literally everyone who has these traits then