Chapter 1 Learning

Haley Cordova
Flashcards by Haley Cordova, updated more than 1 year ago
Haley Cordova
Created by Haley Cordova about 6 years ago
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Learning, classical and operant conditioning

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Question Answer
What did Pavlov's original work involve? Salivating Dogs
What is classical conditioning? Basic learning process that involves repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same response
What is the unconditioned stimulus? The natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response WITHOUT the need for prior learning
What is the unconditioned response? The unlearned, reflexive response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus (Salivation at food)
What is the conditioned stimulus? A formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response (Ringing the bell)
What is the conditioned response? The learned, reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus (Salivation at the bell)
What is stimulus generalization? The occurrence of a learned response not only to the original stimulus but to other similar stimuli as well
What is stimulus discrimination? Occurrence of a learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other, similar stimuli
What is higher order conditioning? (Second order conditioning) A procedure in which a conditioned stimulus from one learning trial functions as the unconditioned stimulus in a new conditioning trial; the second conditioned stimulus comes to elicit the conditioned response even though it has never been directly paired with the unconditioned stimulus
What is extinction? The gradual weakening and apparent disappearance of conditioned behavior
What is spontaneous recovery? Reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time without exposure to the conditioned stimulus
Identify the classical conditioning elements in the Little Albert study UCS: Loud noise UCR: fear CS: White rat CR: fear
What is biological preparedness? In learning theory, the idea that an organism is innately predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli and responses
What was the main focus of Robert Rescorla's research? Reliability
What is reliability? EX: Rats who received shocks always paired with a tone displayed a conditioned fear response to the tone. Rats who received additional shocks without the tone reasoned that the tone is an UNRELIABLE source of an impending shock.
What is learned helplessness? A phenomenon in which exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior (Dogs who cannot escape a shock learn to accept it. When they are allowed an option to escape, they will not even try.)
What is operant conditioning? The basic learning process that involves changing the probability that a response will be repeated by manipulating the consequences of that response
What are the major differences between classical and operant conditioning? Classical - neutral signal BEFORE the behavior; operant - reinforcement or punishment AFTER a behavior. Classical - involuntary; operant - voluntary
What is the law of effect? Proposed by Thorndike: responses followed by satisfying effect are more likely to recur; responses followed by an dissatisfying effect are less likely to recur
What is an operant? An actively committed (voluntary) behavior that operates on the environment to produce consequences
What is positive reinforcement? Situation in which response is followed by the ADDITION of a reinforcing stimulus, which INCREASES the likelihood that it will be repeated (Your coach yells "NICE!" after you do something good)
What is negative reinforcement? Situation in which response results in the removal/avoidance/escape from a punishing stimulus; INCREASING the likelihood that it will be repeated (Take aspirin to "escape" headache; pay bills to "avoid" late charge)
What is punishment by application? (Positive punishment) A situation in which an operant is followed by the presentation or addition of an aversive stimulus
What is punishment by removal? (Negative punishment) Situation in which an operant is followed by the removal of a reinforcing stimulus (After she buys stock (operant) the company fails and she loses her money)
What is shaping? The operant conditioning procedure of selectively reinforcing successively closer approximations of a goal behavior until the goal behavior is displayed
What was Albert Bandura's main research? Most of human behavior is acquired through observational learning; watching and processing information about other's actions and consequences influences whether or not that behavior will be imitated
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