Chapter 10 Personality

Haley Cordova
Flashcards by Haley Cordova, updated more than 1 year ago
Haley Cordova
Created by Haley Cordova over 5 years ago
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2 Psychology Flashcards on Chapter 10 Personality, created by Haley Cordova on 04/01/2015.
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What is personality? An individual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
What is the psychoanalytic perspective of personality? Theory that emphasizes: -unconscious determinants of behavior -sexual and aggressive instinctual drives -enduring effects of early childhood experiences on later personality development
What are the three levels of awareness? (1) Conscious: all the thoughts and feelings you're aware of at any momeny (2) Preconscious: information you are not currently aware of but can easily bring to conscious awareness (e.g. memories) (3) Unconscious: thoughts, feelings, wishes, drives that are operating below the level of conscious awareness
What are the three processes of psychological energy? ID, Ego, Superego
What is the id? Completely unconscious, irrational component of personality that seeks immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives; ruled by pleasure principle
What is the pleasure principle? Motive to obtain pleasure and avoid tension or discomfort; most fundamental human motive
What are the instinctual drives that make up the id? Eros: "life instinct", biological urges that perpetuate existence (hunger, thirst, sexuality) Thanatos: "death instinct", destructive energy reflected in aggressive, reckless, life-threatening behaviors
What is the ego? Partly conscious, rational component of personality that regulates thoughts and behavior, most in touch with the demands of the external world
What is the reality principle? Capacity to accommodate external demands by postponing gratification until the appropriate time or circumstances exist Ego operates on reality principle to find compromises; you wait your turn instead of pushing someone else off the swing
What is the superego? Partly conscious, self-evaluative, moralistic component of personality that is formed through the internalization of parental and societal rules Represents your "conscience" to evaluate between right and wrong, good and bad
What are the ego defense mechanisms? -Repression -Displacement -Sublimination -Rationalization -Projection -Reaction formation -Denial -Undoing -Regression
What is repression? Exclusion of anxiety-producing thoughts from consciouness
What is displacement? Redirection of emotional impulses toward a substitute person/object Angered by a neighbor's comment, angry mother spanks her daughter for spilling milk
What is sublimination? Form of displacement in which sexual urges are rechanneled into productive, nonsexual activities
What is rationalization? After being rejected from a college you say "It's okay I'm glad bc I'd be happier somewhere else anyways"
What is projection? Attributing one's unacceptable urges to others Married woman who is sexually attracted to coworker accuses him of flirting
What is reaction formation? Thinking/behaving in a way that's the extreme opposite of unacceptable urges or impulses Threatened by awakening sexual attraction to girls, teenage boy goes out of his way to tease and torment teenage girls
What is denial? Failure to recognize/acknowledge existence of anxiety-producing info Despite having multiple drinks every night, man says he isn't an alcoholic bc he never drinks before 5pm
What is undoing? Form of unconscious repentance that involves atoning for an unacceptable action with a second action Woman who gets a tax refund by cheating on her taxes makes a larger than usual donation to church collection the following Sunday
What is regression? Retreating to a behavior pattern characteristic of an earlier stage of development After parents' divorce, 10 year old girl refuses to sleep alone and crawls into bed with mother
Weaknesses of psychoanalytic perspective -Inadequacy of evidence: data is derived from Freud's small number of patients -Lack of testability: ideas too vague to be able to objectively measure or confirm -Sexism: Freud's theories reflect a sexist view of women; he used male psychology as a prototype, women are a deviation from the "norm"
What is the humanistic perspective? Viewpoint that emphasizes the inherent goodness of people, human potential, self-actualization, the self-concept, and health personality development
What is the actualizing tendency? Innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism; drive to grow and develop potential
What is the self-concept? Set of perceptions and beliefs that you hold about yourself
What is conditional positive regard? Sense that you will be valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to others
What is unconditional positive regard? Sense that you will be valued and loved even if you don't conform to the standards and expectations of others
What are the characteristics of a healthy self-concept? -Produced through consistent experiences of unconditional positive regard -Person experiences congruence: sense of self is consistent with emotions and experiences
Weaknesses of humanistic perspective -Hard to validate or test scientifically -Too optimistic; if self-actualization is a universal motive, why are self-actualized people so hard to find?
What is the social cognitive perspective of personality? Bandura's theory which emphasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, and social experiences
What is reciprocal determinism? Human behavior and personality is caused by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors
What is self-efficacy? Beliefs that people have about their ability to meet the demands of a specific situation; feelings of self-confidence or self-doubt
How does self-efficacy guide behavior? Weak belief of self-efficacy contributes to imagination of dire consequences; Sandy thinks she will burn the whole house down if she tries to complete a simple electrical task. This self-doubt stops her from even trying to do the thing
How do observational learning and mastery experiences affect self-efficacy? Sandy thought if she watched Don replace the switch, she would feel more confident about doing it herself. Once she does it herself and masters it, she will have higher self-efficacy next time she is faced with the same task
Strengths & weaknesses of social cognitive theory -Grounded in empirical laboratory research -Scientifically testable -Some feel it applies best to lab research and not real life -Ignores unconscious influences, emotions, doesn't explain the whole person
What is the trait perspective or personality? Theory that focuses on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositions
What is a surface trait? Personality characteristic that can easily be inferred from observable behavior E.g. happy, spacey, gloomy
What is a source trait? Most fundamental dimension of personality; broad basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal
What is the five-factor model of personality? Theory of personality that identifies: -Extraversion -Neuroticism -Agreeableness -Conscientiousness and -Openness to experience as the fundamental building blocks of personality
What is a projective test? Personality test that involves a person's interpreting an ambiguous image; used to assess unconscious motives, conflicts, psychological defenses and personality traits e.g. Rorschach inkblot test
What is a self-report inventory? Person's responses to standardized questions are compared to established norms e.g. MMPI
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