Key GCSE Biology terms

mjr
Flashcards by mjr, updated more than 1 year ago
mjr
Created by mjr about 6 years ago
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gcse Biology Flashcards on Key GCSE Biology terms, created by mjr on 04/07/2015.

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Question Answer
Active Transport Movement of substances against a concentration gradient and/or across a cell membrane, using energy.
ADH The hormone which controls the selective reabsorption of water in the kidney.
Aerobic Respiration The process by which food molecules are broken down using oxygen to release energy for the cells.
Allele A version of a particular gene.
Anaerobic Respiration Cellular respiration in the absence of oxygen.
Asexual Reproduction Reproduction that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to their parents.
Auxins Pant hormones that are involved in controlling the phototropisms.
Carbohydrates Food group which includes the sugars and starches. They are important for providing energy for the cells.
Cellular Respiration Respiration that takes pace in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of the cells.
Cellulose cell wall The rigid cell wall that surrounds plant cells.
Chlorophyll The green pigment contained in the chloroplast which captures light energy from the sun.
Chloroplasts The plant organelles which contain chlorophyll. They are the sit of photosynthesis.
Clone Offspring produced by asexual reproduction which are identical to their parent organism.
Codominance Two alleles which are both expressed in the phenotype of an organism.
Consumers Organisms which feed on other organisms.
Cytoplasm The water based gel in which the organelles of all living things are suspended.
Decomposers Microorganisms that break down waste products and dead bodies.
Denatured The breakdown of structure of a protein molecule if the temperature gets too hot or the pH changes.
Diastole The stage of the cardiac cycle when the heart fills with blood.
Differentiate The process by which unspecialised cells become specialised for a particular function.
Diffusion The net movement of the particles of a gas or a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration down a concentration gradient.
Diploid Having two sets of chromosomes in the nucleus of the cells: one from the male parent and one from the female.
Disperse The spreading of seeds away from the parent plant.
Dominant A characteristic which will show up in the offspring even if only one of the alleles are inherited.
Double circulation The separate circulation of the blood from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart again and from the heart to the body and back to the heart.
Ecosystem All of the animals and plants living in an area, along with the things that affect them, such as soil and the weather.
Egestion The removal of undigested food from a cell or from the body in the form of faeces.
Endocrine Glands The glands that produce hormones and secrete them directly into the blood.
Enzyme A protein molecule which acts as a biological catalyst, speeding up the rate of a specific reaction without being used up or affected.
Eutrophication When a lake or river becomes enriched with nutrients (e.g. from fertiliser run off in fields), excess plant growth is followed by decay. Microorganisms use up oxygen from the water so that other organisms can no longer survive.
Fermentation Another term for anaerobic respiration which is particularly used for microorganisms such as yeast. Glucose is partly broken down into ethanol or lactic acid with the release of a small amount of energy.
Fertilisation The joining of the haploid male and female gametes to form a diploid individual.
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