Urban (re)development

Jess Molyneux
Flashcards by Jess Molyneux, updated more than 1 year ago
Jess Molyneux
Created by Jess Molyneux about 6 years ago
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Description

Revision flashcards on Geography - Population and Settlement - Landuse - Urban Development and Redevelopment inc. Hulme Case Study (two developments)

Resource summary

Question Answer
Give a brief locational description of Hulme. Hulme is 1 mile south from the centre of Manchester, beyond the River Medlock. It is an ex-industrial suburb.
What two stages of redevelopment have taken place in Hulme in the past 40 years? 1970s redevelopment of Victorian terraces (now slums), replaced with crescent blocks 1990s (massive) redevelopment of crescent blocks
What were the plans for developing Hulme's Victorian terraces? (Hint: how many people would the development house?) 4 large crescents blocks, 3/4 storey (based on expensive housing in Bath), to house 13,000 people
What problems were caused by the deck access system of 'streets'? (Hint: there are 5) Decks not patrolled like streets Neighbours can't see each other's front doors, more break-ins On top of each other, enclosed, echoes Children play on decks (grass area below not visible from flats) Only two lifts needed, but often broken
Give 3 other design faults of the Hulme crescents and their consequences. Concrete, uniform flats - No sense of ownership, maintenance is poor Letterbox high enough so that someone reaching in can unlock the Yale lock - More break-ins High density housing
What happened to the sense of community in the Hulme crescents? Why? What problem did this lead to? The sense of community was lost because houses didn't face or back onto one another, neighbours didn't have any need to speak to one another. This lead to anti-social behaviour.
What larger consequence did these design faults have? Give evidence to support the point. The Hulme crescents attracted those of the lowest socio-economic standing. They became housing for all of Manchester's 'problem families' and saw extreme deprivation (1973: 60% of people in crescents claiming social security benefits)
What social problems were experienced as a result of this culture of deprivation? (hint: there are four points) Drug abuse, Valium addiction Theft and violence 30x more likely to be mugged or murdered in Hulme than national average Residents 3x more likely to exhibit signs of clinical stress (8 years after building)
What was Hulme's reputation at this time? 1970s - 1980s: Manchester's most deprived area
What attempts were made to solve the problems caused by the Hulme crescents? Change from families to students / singles Add different access point to decks Rip out expensive underfloor heating
What second stage of redevelopment followed? The 1990s redevelopment of the crescents titled 'City Challenge'
What were the five elements of the plans for the City Challenge redevelopment? 2 storey houses with gardens - 2/3 storey apartment blocks (2,000 new homes) Hulme Arch Bridge New road infrastructure, regeneration of Princess Road Birley Field business park New parks and youth centres
How was the City Challenge redevelopment project funded? A mixture of private and Government funding
What was the 'new Hulme' modelled on? The idea of a Moravian settlement based on Ashton-Under-Lyne in Greater Manchester
Why was the new Hulme housing better than the infamous crescents? Part one - Urban environment (Hint: there are 6 points) More attractive urban environment. Trees, cobbled street, wide pavements Brick not concrete Housing similar but not blandly uniform Houses well maintained (ownership) No litter or vandalism Looks safe, community feel
Why was the new Hulme housing better than the infamous crescents? Part two - Crime (Hint: there are 4 points) Reduced crime rate Houses face each other (fewer break-ins) Cars parked outside owner's house More permanent residents and view less restricted (neighbours recognise people) More full ownership / sense of community (protecting area's reputation e.g. neighbour watch schemes)
Why was the new Hulme housing better than the infamous crescents? Part three - Safety (Hint: there are 5 points) Safer for young children Parents can watch street from inside Children can play at ground level Most have back gardens Wide pavements Cars have designated parking spaces
Why was the new Hulme housing better than the infamous crescents? Part four - Community (Hint: there are 2 points) Stronger sense of community Houses face one another More sense of ownership and permanence Less isolated / more integrated into the urban fabric
Why was the new Hulme housing better than the infamous crescents? Part five - Socio-economic mix (Hint: there are 3 points) Greater socio-economic mix of people. Mixed housing type Mixed ownership (rented and private) Settling and aspirational attractiveness
Why are some people opposed to the further development of suburbs? Why may they think that it is unsustainable? Increase in private car usage. Cars run on fossil fuels (limited resources and global warming) - private car only transports one person City centre isn't designed for traffic and parking (congestion becomes problematic)
What do some people argue would make the 1990s redevelopment of Hulme more sustainable? More public transport and green transport systems built into the plan
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