topic 22 - experiments

Charlotte Hewson
Flashcards by Charlotte Hewson, updated more than 1 year ago
Charlotte Hewson
Created by Charlotte Hewson almost 6 years ago
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A-Level Psychology A2 (RESEARCH METHODS) Flashcards on topic 22 - experiments , created by Charlotte Hewson on 04/21/2015.

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Question Answer
what is an IV? something directly manipulated by the experiment
what is the DV? the variable measured at the end
what is the relationship between the IV and the DV? the DV depends on the IV
what is a lab experiment? an experiment done in a lab, a special environment where variables can be investigated under controlled conditions
what is the aim of a study? a statement of what the researcher intends to investigate
what is a hypothesis? a precise and testable statement about the expected relationship between variables
what is an extraneous variable? any variable other than the IV which may affect the DV and so confound the findings, affecting validity
what is operationalisation? defining a variable in a way that can be easily measured or tested
what is a directional hypothesis? states the direction of the difference between two conditions/groups
what is a non-directional hypothesis? states there is a difference without identifying the direction
what is a strength of a lab experiment? researchers can minimise extraneous variables
what does this mean can be done? we can be more certain that is the IV causing the DV not another variable
what are 2 limitations? -setting is contrived (lacks mundane realism) - experimenter effects may influence results
what does it mean that the setting is contrived? participants may behave differently than they do in everyday life
what does this mean for the results? they cant be generalised to everyday life
what is an example of experimenter effects? if they expect boys to do better than girls, they may subtly encourage boy to do better
what does this mean about the final results? boys do better because of the encouragement, not because they are actually superior
what is a second strength of a lab experiment? the level of control makes it easy to replicate
what does this mean? you can demonstrate the validity of results if they occur again when study is redone
what are demand characteristics? a cue that makes participant aware of the aim and affect their behaviour
what do demand characteristics act as? an extraneous variable which may affect the validity
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