Immunology

Elena Cade
Flashcards by Elena Cade, updated more than 1 year ago
Elena Cade
Created by Elena Cade over 5 years ago
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A-Level Biology (1.6 Defence Against Disease) Flashcards on Immunology, created by Elena Cade on 04/23/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is a pathogen? A microbe that causes disease
Name 5 non specific defence mechanisms Phagocytosis / Skin / Mucus / Acid / Skin oils
What type of Cells are involved in the specific defence mechanism? Lymphocytes
What is the role of mucus in defence? Pathogens stick to mucus and it is transported up and swallowed
What do phagocytes contain that release lytic enzymes? Lysosomes
What shape are antibodies? Y shaped
What time of immunity involved T lymphocytes? Cell mediated immunity
Where are T lymphocytes produced? Stem cells/ Bone marrow
Where do T lymphocytes mature? Thymus
What type of antigens trigger an immune response from T lymphocytes? Body cells that have been altered/ Non self antigens
What type of immunity involved B lymphocytes? Humoural
What do B lymphocytes respond to? Bacteria / Viruses / Antigens / Toxins
How long after infection does it take for antibodies to be produced? 3 - 14 days
What are the type of cells that are clones of B & T lymphocytes that remain in the body for long term defence? Memory Cells
Why does antigenic variation stop the previous antibodies responding to a new infection? The antigens have changed , the new antigens will not correspond to the antibodies/memory cells
How many polypeptide chains are in an antibody? 4
What holds the peptide chains together? Disulphide bridges
Name some features of a successful vaccination programme Available / Few side effects / has the means to be produced, transported and stored / staff to administer/ available to vaccinate majority of population
What type of immunity results from antibodies being transferred? Passive
What are monoclonal antibodies? A single type of antibody that has been isolated and cloned outside the body
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