Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Adam Hollens
Flashcards by Adam Hollens, updated more than 1 year ago
Adam Hollens
Created by Adam Hollens over 5 years ago
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Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals lecture from Semester Two of Year One
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Question Answer
Define Functional Foods A food component (whether a nutrient or not) which affects one or more targeted functions in the body in a positive way
Define a Nutraceutical A food component/nutrient which has drug like effects on the physiological functions
What are functional foods targeted at and give some common targets so far Functional foods can be targeted at any disease state but major targets so far have been cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal health
Give examples of common functional foods and there health benefit -Quaker Oats (reduce cholesterol) -Flora (reduce cholesterol) -Benecol (reduce cholesterol) -Olestra (reduce fat and energy intake)
What health benefit can consuming Quaker Oats have and how does it achieve this? -It can help to lower cholesterol when part of a low fat diet -This is due to it being rich in soluble fibre -Soluble fibre can: bind bile acids which increases the excretion of them; decrease cholesterol absorption; fermentation of the fibre can produce propionate which may inhibit hepatic cholesterol synthesis
What health benefit can Flora exert and how does it achieve this? -It can help lower cholesterol because: it is high in essential polyunsaturates; its low in saturates; it has virtually no trans fatty acids; it is rich in vitamin E; it has no hydrogenated oils
What health benefit is associated with Benecol and how does it achieve this? -Can help to lower cholesterol because it contains plant stanol ester -Usually, cholesterol is absorbed from the intestine in the form of micelles but stanol ester displaces the cholesterol from these and thus increases the excretion of cholesterol
What is Olean? Olean is a brand of Olestra by Proctor and Gambles
What is Olestra, what is its health benefit and how does it achieve this? -It is a sucrose polyester (sucrose + a long chain of fatty acids) -It is a non-absorbable fat with physical and organoleptic qualities of conventional dietary fats -It therefore reduces fat and energy intake
Olestra has been approved in the US. Name some products which Olestra may be found in Potato chips, cheese puffs and savoury crackers
List a disadvantage of Olestra and state how it gets around this problem Fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K are absorbed less when Olestra is consumed and so these particular vitamins are added to foods containing Olestra to offset the impact
What side effect is common with Olestra? If it is consumed regularly, it can lead to stomach cramping and oily stools
Name a common Nutraceutical and list common food sources in which it can be found Polyphenols which can be found in fruits and vegetables as well as green tea, cocoa, pomegranate juice, red wine and liquorice
What are polyphenols? They are potent antioxidants
Name some common polyphenols and note what they have in common in terms of their chemical structure Benzoic acid, ferulic acid, resveratrol, quercetin - they all contain a benzene ring and a hydroxyl group (OH group)
What are flavanoids? and what do they have in common with each other? -Flavanoids are a subset of polyphenols. -Flavanoids have in common a 3 ringed structure which is similar to the structure of cholesterol and steroids
Give an example of different flavanoids and state common foods they can be found in -Flavanols e.g. quercetin (apples, kale & red wine) -Flavones e.g. luteolin (celery, green olives & sweet peppers) -Favan-3-ols e.g. catechin (apples, plums, green tea)
Resveratrol is a polyphenol with what structure? and what particular characteristic? It has a stilbene structure and it has a high absorbance (70% but only a trace in plasma)
What food sources can resveratrol be found in? Found in 72 plant species such as peanuts and grapes but is mainly associated with red wine
Discuss what is meant by the French Paradox French diet is typically high in fat (including sat. fat) One would assume they have a high rate of cardiovascular disease but compared to the rest of the world they don’t. It is believed that high amounts of reservatrol, consumed via red wine contributes towards this lower risk
Resveratrol is known as a nutraceutical due to its drug-like effects. List the actions that resveratrol has on the body -Potent antioxidant (40-50x more potent than vit. C) -Inhibits platelet aggregation -Induces vasodilations (lower BP) -It is anti proliferative (anti-cancer) -Anti-inflammatory -Extends lifespan -Regulates cell signalling and gene expression
Explain the effects that resveratrol has on gene expression -It allows the beneficial effect of oxidative stress on increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) -It blocks the detrimental effect of oxidative stress on increasing endothelin-1 (ET-1) -Simply, it increases nitric oxide (NO) and decreases ET-1 which leads to vasodilation and therefore lower blood pressure
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