ALKENES

hannie edward
Flashcards by hannie edward, updated more than 1 year ago
hannie edward
Created by hannie edward over 5 years ago
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a-levels Chemistry (organic chemistry) Flashcards on ALKENES, created by hannie edward on 05/06/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
GENERAL FORMULA FOR ALKENES CN H2N
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKENES SAME AS ALKANES
WHAT KIND OF REACTION MECHANISM DO ALKENES UNDERGO? ELECTROPHILIC ADDITION. ETHENE HAS A HIGH ELECTRON DENSITY DUE TO THE PI ELECTRONS IN THE DOUBLE BOND. THIS CAUSES THE BROMINE APPROACHING IT TO BECOME POLARIZED. A LOOSE ASSOCIATION FORMS BETWEEN ETHENE AND BROMINE. THE NEGATIVE CHARGE FROM THE DOUBLE BOND MOVES TOWARDS THE BROMINE WHILE THE ELECTRONS FROM THE BR-BR BOND MOVES TOWARDS THE NEGATIVELY CHARGED BR ATOM (HETEROLYTIC FISSION). THIS RESULTS IN THE FORMATION OF A CARBOCATION AND BR ION. THE CARBOCATION IS QUITE UNSTABLE AND RAPIDLY REACTS WITH THE BR ION.
COMBUSTION OF ALKENES ALKENES BURN IN OXYGEN TO GIVE CARBON DIOXIDE AND WATER.
REACTION WITH HALOGEN ALKENES REACT WITH HALOGENS UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS TO FORM DIHALOGENOALKANE.
REACTION WITH HYDROGEN HALIDES ALKENES REACT WITH GASEOUS HYDROGEN HALIDE DISSOLVED IN AN INERT SOLVENT IN THE COLD TO FORM A HALOGENOALKANE.
REACTION WITH HYDROGEN GASEOUS ALKENES REACT WITH HYDROGEN GAS IN THE PRESENCE OF A FINELY DIVIDED NICKEL CATALYST ON AN INERT MATERIAL TO FORM AN ALKANE.
REACTION WITH WATER ALKENES REACT WITH WATER IN THE VAPOUR PHASE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES(330C) AND PRESSURE(600ATM), IN THE PRESENCE OF PHOSPHORIC ACID CATALYST TO FORM AN ALCOHOL.
REACTION WITH COLD, ALKALINE KMNO4 ALKENES REACT RAPIDLY WITH COLD, ALKALINE KMNO4 TO FORM A DIOL. THE PURPLE MANGANATE TURNS BROWN.
REACT WITH HOT CONCENTRATED KMNO4 ALKENES ARE OXIDISED TO CARBONYLS THEN FURTHER OXIDISED TO CARBOXYLIC ACIDS WHEN HEATED UNDER REFLUX. OXIDATIVE CLEAVAGE OF THE DOUBLE BOND OCCURS.
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