Communication & Cultures | AS Flashcards

Flashcards by Molly562, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Created by Molly562 over 4 years ago


Important keywords which can be used in the exam.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Codes meaning systems consisting of signs.
Communication A process through which meaning are exchanged.
Context The situation within which communication takes place.
Culture A particular way of life which expresses certain meanings and values.
Identity The sense we have of ourselves, which we 'represent' 'elsewhere': a persons social meaning.
Power Control and influence over other people and their actions.
Representation Refers to the construction in any medium of aspects of 'reality' such as people, places, objects, events, cultural identities and other abstract concepts.
Value The worth, importance, or usefulness of something to somebody.
Bias A way of privileging one argument or interest over another based on personal feeling rather than rational argument.
Cultural Practise The things people do in everyday life - such as greeting each other.
Cultural Product The that we encounter in our daily lives.
Elite Culture The culture of those with power and influence.
High Culture According to Arnold 'the best that has been thought and said': Art, literature and Music.
Popular (Low Culture) The products and practises of everyday life as practised and valued by ordinary people.
Youth Culture The cultural products of the young.
Ethnicity A term which represents social groups with a shared history, sense of identity, geography and cultural roots which may occur despite racial difference.
Gender Refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities and conventions that govern the way we live our lives.
Meanings and Practices of Everyday Life (MPEL) The codes and conventions that govern the way we live our lives.
Social Class Any category based on power, wealth or income.
Socialisation All of the processes through which we are included into society.
Stereotype A stereotype is a simplified and generalised image of a group of people which is created by values, judgements and assumptions of its creations.
Aesthtics Is commonly known as the study of judgements of sentiment and taste. Studies show the ways of perceiving the world and seeks to determine what is valid to be beauty.
Folk Culture The localised lifestyle of a culture. It is usually handed down through oral tradition relates to a sense of community and demonstrates the 'old ways' over novelty.
Mass Culture Literally culture made by and for the masses.
Hegemony Antonio Gramsci - why the majority of people in culture do/do not adopt the values and beliefs of their own class. dominant way in which most people are suppose to think or believe.
Preferred Reading The reading a text's producer would like receivers to make.
Accent A way of pronouncing words that indicated the place of origin or social background of the speaker.
Appearance The way somebody or something looks or seems to other people: an outward aspect of somebody or something that creates a particular impression.
Bodily Adornment All the ways in which 'furnish' and decorate the body (clothing, jewellery, make-up, tattooing etc).
Dialect A type of language use specific to a particular area within the country.
Facial Experession The use of the face as an expressive instrument or communication.
Gesture A movement with a part of the body in order to express meaning or emotion or to communicate an instruction.
Ideal Self The kind of person we would like to be.
Idiolect An individuals personal language register, it encompasses all our experience and knowledge or language. The idiolect consists not only the vocabulary but also conventions of performance.
Intercation Communication between or joint activity involving two or more people.
Kinesics Body movement such as gesture, facial expression, posture, head nodding, orientation. (Lieing - subconsciously hide the mouth.)
Non-Verbal Communication All communication other than that involving words and language.
Non-Verbal Leakage When messages 'slip out' in spite of our attempts to control them.
Paralanguage Consists of the non-verbal elements that accompany speech. It includes the way we speak: volume, pitch, language, laughter, crying.
Persona An adopted form of the self/identity
Proxemics The study of how we use space and distance including seating arrangements, queuing and territoriality.
Self-Concept Is the idea we have ourselves, consciously or otherwise.
Self Disclosure The act of revealing ourselves, consciously or otherwise.
Self Esteem A measure of our own self worth.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Refers to how our belief that something is true can cause it to be so. E.g. if we believe we are confident , we act as if we are confident and so become confident.
Adapters Almost unconscious gestures used to relieve stress or boredom e.g. drumming fingers. Often adapters showing nervousness or anxiety.
Body Language Bodily mannerisms, postures and facial expressions that can be interpreted as unconsciously communicating somebody's feeling or psychological state.
Code Switching Refers to the way in which we may change between languages or dialects depending on who we are talking to.
Communicative Competence The capacity to communicate; usually refers to the ability to use various communicative codes verbal and non-verbal appropriately in a variety of contexts.
Convergence The way in which we adjust our language to make it more like the language style of the person we are addressing if we want to convey warmth, friendliness and empathy.
Divergence Moving language style away from the other person's way of speaking can signal status or the desire to avoid intimacy.
Occulesics Eye movement, length and direction of gaze changes in pupil size.
Anchorage Directing receivers towards one particular meaning from a range of possible meanings. A caption can anchor the meaning of a photograph.
Barrier Anything which interferes with the processes of communication.
Channel A communication route or connection
Connotation The meanings in a text that are revealed through the receivers own personal and cultural experience.
Denotation The specific, direct or obvious meaning of a sign rather than its associated meanings: those things directly referenced by a sign.
Gatekeeper Someone who controls the selection of information to be offered to a given channel. E.g. News - the pictures which they show.
Genre This term describes the subdivisions of the output of a given medium e.g. television, film, magazine publishing.
Process School A school thought in which communication is conceived as a process whereby information is transmitted.
Semiotics The study of signs and how they communicate.
Aberrant Decoding 'Reading' a text in any way other than as it is intended, usually because the receiver does not share a knowledge and understanding of the code or codes used by the sender.
Entropy A communication that is high on new information and that is highly unpredictable is said to be entropic.
Myth 'A cultures way of conceptualising an abstract topic'
Paradigm A set of signs which one might have be chosen to contribute to a syntagm defining an individual members with reference to to all others in the set. E.g. a Lion represents strength, power and elitism whereas a frog represents weakness etc.
Syntagm A chain of signs, a unique combination of sign choices.
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