GCSE History – Government of the Third Reich to 1945

Ben C
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Ben C
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Edexcel GCSE History flashcards for Topic 2C Life in Germany - Government of the Third Reich to 1945.

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Question Answer
What happened in the July 1932 elections? -Von Papen's Centre Party holds elections to gain support BUT loses seats. -Nazis become largest party, but Hitler NOT made chancellor.
What happened in the November 1932 elections? -Von Papen calls ANOTHER election and Centre Party loses more seats. -Nazi Party loses more seats, but are still the largest party.
Who was Von Schleicher? Army's political adviser to President Hindenburg.
What was Von Schleicher's main advice to Hindenburg and what was the consequence of this? -Advised Hindenburg NOT to re-appoint von Papen in November (feared violence from extremists). -President made von Schleicher Chancellor instead.
What happened after von Schleicher was elected? -He couldn't form a government and lost support of Hindenburg. -Resigned believing von Papen would succeed him.
Who was von Hindenburg? -Became President in April 1925. -In Depression, used Emergency Powers to rule without Reichstag after 1930.
Who did von Hindenburg appoint as Chancellors after 1930? Appointed von Papen, then von Schleicher as Chancellor.
What was the problem with the Chancellors von Hindenburg appointed? Neither could form a government.
What were von Hindenburg's views on Hitler and the Nazis? -He distrusted them. -Refused to appoint Hitler as Chancellor, even when he had largest majority. -At the end of January 1933, von Papen persuaded him that Hitler was the only option. -Made Hitler Chancellor ON CONDITION THAT von Papen was vice-chancellor. -They thought they could control Hitler XD
Who was von Papen? -Chancellor from May to November 1932. -Leader of the Centre Party.
What were von Papen's views on von Schleicher and what did he do in order to deal with these views? He was furious when he became Chancellor and started negotiating with Hitler.
What did von Papen persuade Hindenburg to do and what did this lead him to become? -Persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Hitler after von Schleicher resigned, believing that they could control Hitler XD. -Became Vice-Chancellor to Hitler 1933-34.
What were the 4 key events of 1933? -Reichstag Fire. -Emergency decree. -Political parties and trade unions suppressed. -Enabling Act.
When was the Reichstag fire, who started it and confessed and what were the 2 consequences of this? -27th February 1933, Reichstag burned down. -Communist Marius van der Lubbe confessed to causing the fire. -Hitler accused KDP and arrested 4000 communists. -Hindenburg passed Emergency decree.
What did the Emergency Decree the State to do? 5 things. -Arrest and detain people without trial for as long as necessary. -Search and confiscate property. -Read post and listen to telephone calls. -Censor the press. -Stop people organizing meetings.
What was the Enabling Act? -Gave Hitler the power to make any law he wanted for four years without the consent of the Reichstag. -Act meant Germany became a DICTATORSHIP.
How was the Enabling Act passed, and what were the votes for and against it? -444 votes to 91. -An emergency decree meant that 81 communist members couldn't take up their seats. -Hitler made deals with National and Centre parties. -SA surrounded the meeting and threatened opposition politicians.
What did the Enabling Act allow Hitler to do in terms of opposition? It allowed him to get rid of any opposition he liked.
What was the effect of the Enabling Act on trade unions? -They were abolished. -Replaced with the German Labour Front. -Many union officials were arrested on 2nd May 1933.
What was the effect of the Enabling Act on other political parties? -May 1933, the SDP and Communist Party offices and funds were taken by the Nazis. -July 1933, other political parties were banned.
What was the effect of the Enabling Act on state parliaments? -Closed down on 31st March 1933. -Reorganized with Nazi majorities. -Completely abolished in January 1934.
What were the 3 main events of 1934? -Nature of Hitler's role of Führer. -Death of von Hindenburg. -Night of the Long Knives.
How was Hitler perceived by the public and supporters? -Sacrificed his own happiness to serve Germany. -A soldier of the people who could make Germany GREAT again.
How did his supporters see him, and swear allegiance to him? -People could see and meet him on his frequent tours. -Featured in much Nazi propaganda, and gave speeches at rallies and on the radio. -People swore allegiance to him personally and gave the "Heil Hitler" salute.
What did Hitler give his supporters in return? Wide-ranging powers.
Who was von Hindenburg in relation to Hitler, when did he die and what was the consequence of this? -Von Hindenburg was the only person senior to Hitler. -August 1934: he died. -Within hours, Hitler declared himself as Führer and took on the president's powers.
When was the Night of the Long Knives? 30th June 1934.
What happened during the Night of the Long Knives? -Hitler arranged a meeting with Röhm and other SA leaders. -Leaders arrested by SS and taken to Munich to be shot. -In the following days, others were killed: --Kurt von Schleicher. -Gregor Strasser.
Why was the Night of the Long Knives necessary for the success of the Nazi Party? -SA were NO longer needed to maintain Nazi power. -Army wanted SA to be controlled. -SA powerful enough to overthrow Hitler. -SA had nearly 2 million violent members and was A THREAT. -SA leaders had bad reputations. -Ongoing power struggle between Heinrich Himmler (SS) and Röhm (SA).
What was the result of the Night of the Long Knives? -Few people were left to rival Hitler. -Army swore allegiance to Hitler personally in August. -SS established as a major force.
What were the 5 reasons as to why Hitler was able to gain total power? -Hindenburg appointed him. -Von Papen persuaded Hindenburg to appoint him. -In July and November 1932, the Nazi Party got the MOST votes. -Von Schleicher resigned and Hindenburg didn't have a choice. -Hindenburg and von Papen thought they could control Hitler.
What were the laws restricting civil liberties? It was a crime to listen to: -Foreign radio. -Say anything against Hitler. -Tell an anti-Nazi joke I've got a sick one here: "What's the difference between christianity and national socialism? - In christianity one man died for all, in national socialism all men are expected to die for one." XD
Name 7 methods that were used in the Nazi police state. -New laws. -SS enforced 'protective custody' (breaking new laws or opposing the Nazis). -Gestapo spied on people, by reading mail or listening to phone calls. -Block wardens. -People were encouraged to inform on people close to them. -Law courts were under Nazi rule (judges had sworn loyalty to Hitler) ; NO trial by jury. -Concentration camps.
Who were the Gestapo? The Nazi secret police.
What were the two main methods of control, if you were to categorize them? By fear and by indoctrination.
Describe the 'life' and role of the SS. -Created in 1925 as a small group of bodyguards for Hitler. -After 1929, led by Himmler. -Grew under Himmler and acted as the police of the Nazi State. -Unlimited powers to search property, and arrest and imprison people WITHOUT trial. -Ran concentration and death camps. -Helped get rid of SA on the Night of the Long Knives.
What was the purpose of concentration camps? -Prisoners taken to these for 'questioning', imprisonment, torture and re-education. -
Where and in what year was the first concentration camp opened? -Dachau in 1933.
What were the conditions like in the concentration camps? -VERY BAD. -Inmates were brutally treated and forced to do hard labour. -Deaths from disease or starvation.
What was the role of block wardens? -Local wardens given 40 households to spy on for suspicious behaviour. -This owuld include the breaking of new laws.
What is censorship? When unacceptable in some parts, or whole books, films etc., are officially suppressed.
Who was Goebbels? The Nazi Minister of Enlightenment and Propaganda.
What was his main feature and what did he control? -He was very skillful at spreading Nazi ideology. -Controlled newspapers, the radio, book publishing, films and the arts.
Name 4 uses of censorship. -Public burning of books by Jewish writers or others who disagreed with Nazi views. -Radio producers, playwrights, filmmakers and newspapers were told what to say. -Newspapers opposing the Nazis were closed. -Only radios that couldn't receive foreign stations were made.
What was the purpose of posters? To show Nazi beliefs everywhere.
What was the purpose of cinema? To show propaganda films, but mainly entertainment films that had subtle Nazi messages.
What was the purpose of artists and playwrights? Nazis encouraged them to produce work highlighting Nazi ideas.
What was the effectiveness of military parades and rallies? -To project strength of the Nazis. -To make Germans proud of their country. -To fill them with terror depending on their viewpoint.
What was the effectiveness of radio? -Hitler could broadcast speeches all the time. -They were VERY cheap so nearly everybody had them. -Loud speakers were also installed in street. -This allowed for a greater success in indoctrination in the population.
What was the effectiveness of cinema? -Cinemas were well attended and with every film, there was a 45-minute newsreel about the success of the Nazis and Hitler. -This allowed the fusion of both Nazi ideology and entertainment, making it even MORE effective.
What was the effectiveness of culture? -Nazis despised all of the modern art. -It was effective because they could use culture to promote their ideas. -They were encouraged to use 'Aryan themes' such as family, national community and heroism.
In Germany, what was the division of religion? -Two-thirds of people were Protestant. -One-third of people were Catholic.
Give 4 reasons as to why Hitler was determined to reduce the influence of the Catholic Centre party. -Catholics owed first allegiance to the Pope, not Hitler. -Catholics consistently supported the Centre Party, not the Nazi Party. -Catholic parents sent children to Catholic Youth groups, not Hitler Youth. -Many Catholic schools where education was not subjected to the level of control and propaganda faced by children in schools run by the state.
What was the Catholic Concordat? -An agreement, made in 1933, that stated that Hitler would not interfere with the Catholic Church and its worship, youth organisations and schools. -In return, the Catholic Party would stay out of politics.
When and how did Hitler start to break the Concordat? -A year after it was agreed. -Nazis started to attack the Church. -It did this by removing Christian symbols from schools and taking schools away from Church Control.
What happened in 1937 as a blow for the Catholic Church? The Nazis banned Catholic Youth.
What was 'With Burning Anxiety'? A famous statement by the Pope Pius XI in which he showed his opposition to Hitler's policies, in response to the violation of the Catholic Church in Nazi Germany.
Was the breaking of the Concordat good or bad? -Priests who were sent to concentration camps were seen at martyrs. -Church leaders were applauded by people when they appeared in public. -Catholic churches were packed with worshipers every Sunday.
When was the Reich Church founded? 1933.
How many churches made up the Reich church? 2000 Protestant churches.
Who led the Reich church and what did the Church believe in? -Led by Ludwig Müller. -Supported the Nazis.
When was the Confessional Church founded? 1934.
How many churches made up the Confessional Church? 6000 Protestant churches.
Who led the Confessional Church and what did the Church believe in? Led my Martin Niemöller. -Opposed Nazi ideology. -They were REPRESSED by the Nazis.
What was the significance of the Pastor Niemöller? -Frequently spoke out against the Nazis. -July 1937, arrested and sent to prison for 7 months. Continued attacking Nazi policies when he was released. -Arrested again and spent seven years in concentration camps until the end of WW2.
When was the White Rose Group set up? 1942-43.
Who set up the White Rose Group and where? The WRG was set up at Munich University by Sophie Scholl and Kurt Huber.
What was the symbol of the White Rose Group and what was the significance of this? A white rose which was a symbol for justice and pacifism.
What did the WRG do? -Hans had seen the murder of Jews and other non-Aryans on the Eastern Front. -Group let people know the horrors that were happening. -Created and distributed leaflets opposing the Nazis and the war.
What happened to the WRG leaders? All three leaders were eventually caught and executed.
Who were the Edelweiss Pirates? Small groups that opposed the Hitler Youth.
What was the appearance of the Edelweiss Pirates? Boys wore check shirts and dark trousers, and girls wore make-up and permed their hair.
What was the symbol of the Edelweiss Pirates? d6c6644b-3838-4d82-8052-1627a3d7d664.jpg (image/jpg)
What did the Edelweiss Pirates do? -They read and listened to banned media, like jazz, and wrote anti-Nazi graffiti. -They spread Allied propaganda leaflets. -They gave shelter to army deserters.
Who did the Edelweiss Pirates attack? -Members of the Hitler Youth. -In 1944, they killed the head of the Cologne Gestapo.
What happened to some of the members of the Edelweiss Pirates? Some were caught and hanged.
What is the main difference between the Edelweiss Pirates and the White Rose Group? The Edelweiss Pirates were more militant and aggressive, whereas the White Rose Group were pacifist.
What was the name of the July Plot of 1944? Operation Valkyrie.
Who led Operation Valkyrie and what was the plot? -Count von Stauffenberg devised the plan. -He planned to plant a bomb in his briefcase and assassinate Hitler.
What happened on 20th July 1944? -A military conference in East Prussia. -Von Stauffenberg tries to blow up Hitler. -Bomb exploded, but Hitler was protected by a table.
What was the aftermath of Operation Valkyrie? -5746 people were executed. -This included 19 generals, 27 coloners, von Stauffenberg and Beck.
What does Operation Valkyrie highlight? The deep opposition to Hitler within the army towards the end of the war.
Name 6 reasons for the lack of opposition. -Many people resisted privately, not openly. -Nazi policies improved many Germans' lives. -Opposition groups were banned. -People feared the SS, Gestapo and concentration camps. -There was a large number of informers. -There was also genuine support for Hitler.
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