GCSE Food Technology key terms


Key words for GCSE food tech exam. From aqa website: http://filestore.aqa.org.uk/subjects/AQA-4545-W-TRB-OGGT.PDF
Holly Bamford
Flashcards by Holly Bamford, updated more than 1 year ago
Holly Bamford
Created by Holly Bamford almost 9 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Additive a natural or synthetic substance which is added to food for a specific purpose
Aeration when air is trapped in a mixture
Aesthetic attractive
Ambient temperature normal room temperature (20-25ºC)
Anaerobic not needing oxygen
Antioxidant a substance that stops fat in food going rancid
Antibacteria substance that will usually destroy bacteria
Aseptic packaging preserves foods without using preservatives or chilling
Biodegradable broken down totally by bacteria
Blast chilling quick freezing – small ice crystals form and there is less damage to the food than in slow freezing
Calcium a mineral element which is essential for strong bones and teeth
Caramelisation process of changing the colour of sugar from white to brown when heated
Clostridium a form of bacterial food poisoning
Coagulation the change in the structure of protein brought about by heat, mechanical action or acids
Coeliac disease caused by an intolerance of the protein gluten present in the cereals wheat, barley and rye
Cook-Chill a method of food preparation in which the food is cooked then rapidly chilled and stored below 5ºc thus increasing the keeping quality of the product for a short time
Colloidal structure when two substances are mixed together
Colloids formed when one substance is dispersed through another
Critical Control Point (CCP) when a food safety hazard can be prevented/reduced to an acceptable level
Cryogenic freezing food is immersed or sprayed with liquid nitrogen
Danger zone the temperature range (5 to 63ºC) in which bacteria grow
Deteriorate starting to decay and losing freshness
Dextrinisation when starch converts into a sugar
Dietary Fibre material, mostly from plants, which is not digested by humans but which absorbs water and binds other residues in the intestine thus aiding the excretion of waste material from the body
Diverticular Disease a disease caused by a lack of fibre in the diet
E numbers the classification system of permitted additives produced by the European Union
Emulsifier a substance that stops oil and water from separating
Emulsifying agent a substance that will allow two immiscible liquids (substances that do not mix) to be held together, e.g. lecithin in egg yolk
Enrobing coating and surrounding a product with another ingredient
Enzymic browning reaction between a food product and oxygen resulting in a brown colour, e.g. sliced potato has brown patches when sliced and left in the air
Fermentation when yeast produces carbon dioxide
Fibre indigestible parts of food – usually cellulose, which remains in the intestine after digestion
Foams a mixture of gas and liquid is called a foam, e.g. air whisked into egg white creates a foam
Gelatinisation heated starch granules absorb liquid and swell, and burst to thicken liquid
Halal food which is selected and prepared according to Islamic dietary law
Hermetically airtight
Irradiation a process used to reduce spoilage in some foods
Kosher food which is selected and prepared in accordance with Jewish dietary law
Lecithin present in egg yolk and soya and used as an emulsifier in manufactured foods
Micronutrient vitamins and minerals which are needed in small quantities for health
Modified starches starches that have been altered to perform additional functions
Non starch polysaccharide the part of food that is not digested by the body (fibre)
Organoleptic sensory qualities (texture, flavour, aroma, appearance) of a food product.
Pasteurisation the process of prolonging the keeping quality of products such as milk by heating to destroy harmful bacteria
Preservative a substance that extends the shelf life of a food
Quality Assurance a guarantee by retailers and manufacturers that products are safe and of a good quality
Raising agent increases the volume of doughs, batters and mixtures by promoting gas release (aeration)
Shortening when fat coats the flour particles preventing absorption of water resulting in a crumbly mixture
Suspensions a solid held in a liquid
Syneresis usually refers to eggs; if overcooked, the proteins shrink as they coagulate and separate from the watery liquid
Tolerance levels the amount of difference allowed when making
Viscosity the thickness of a liquid or a mixture, such as a sauce
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