Medicine through time-Key individuals

Holly Bamford
Flashcards by Holly Bamford, updated more than 1 year ago


UG lectures (Medicine through time.) Flashcards on Medicine through time-Key individuals, created by Holly Bamford on 05/27/2015.

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Question Answer
The god Asclepius • Greek god of healing • He had two daughters, Panacea and Hygeia who assisted him with healing • He was worshiped at special temples called Acsclepions
Hippocrates • Greek doctor, born in Cos around 460BC • Author of ‘Hippocratic Collection’ of medical texts • Originator of the ‘Hippocratic Oath’ and pioneer of ‘Four Humours’ theory
Galen • Born in 129AD in Greece, but travelled round the Roman Empire & was doctor to the Emperor • Developed the ‘Theory of the Opposites’ from Four Humours • Demonstrated the brain controlled the body not the heart
Avicenna • Also known as Ibn Sinna • Arab doctor, who lived from 980-1037 AD in Spain • Wrote a million-word textbook covering all aspects of medicine
Andreas Vesalius • Born in Brussels in 1514 and studied medicine in Brussels and Italy, where he used artists drawing of dissections and published them in ‘Fabric of Human Body’ • His work was widely circulated due to the invention of printing • Challenged the ideas of Galen, e.g. over human jaw bone
Ambroise Paré • Born in France in 1510 • Surgeon in Paris at Hotel Dieu and military surgeon • Treated wounds using turpentine and conducted amputations using ligatures
William Harvey • Born in 1578 • Worked as royal doctor and lecturer in anatomy • Developed theory of circulation of blood and challenged Galen’s ideas on blood
Paracelsus • Born in 1483 in Germany • Disagreed with Galen over Four Humours and thought disease attacks body from outside • Devised mineral remedies to help cure disease, e.g. mercury and arsenic
Edward Jenner • Born in England in 1749 • Developed first vaccine for smallpox using cowpox • Faced much opposition to his ideas, e.g. from Royal Society although Parliament granted him £30,000 to set up a vaccination clinic in London
Elizabeth Garret-Anderson • Born in 1836 • First woman doctor to qualify in 1865 and founded The New Hosiptal for Women in London • In 1876 a law was passed allowing women to enter medical professions
Florence Nightingale • Born in 1820 • Worked as a nurse at the Scutari Hospital in the Crimea • Published ‘Notes on Nursing’ and founded 1st training school for nurses (1860)
Louis Pasteur • Born in France 1822 • Author of ‘Germ Theory’, challenging the theory of ‘spontaneous generation’ and miasmas • Use of new technologies, e.g. Lister’s telescope helped him make his discoveries
Robert Koch • Born in Germany in 1843 • Used teams of bacteriologists to identify the bacteria causing different diseases • Identified different bacteria using stains and cultivating them on Petri dishes
Ignaz Semmelweiss • Hungarian doctor born in 1818 who worked in Austria • Insisted that doctors washed their hands after dissections to reduce cross-contamination with patients • Called doctors who didn’t wash their hands ‘murderers’
Joseph Lister • Born in England in 1827 • Influenced by Pasteur’s ‘Germ Theory’ and developed the carbolic spray • Unpopular with doctors due to unpleasant side-effects
Dr John Snow • In 1854 he made the connection between outbreaks of cholera and infected water supply • Based his work on meticulous studies of Broad Street, London • Conducted house-to-house interviews and recorded findings on a map
Alexander Fleming • Rediscovered the properties of the bacteria penicillin by chance in his laboratory at St Mary’s London in 1928 • Used penicillin to attack staphylococcus, a major cause of blood infections • Lacked the facilities to develop large quanitities
Florey and Chain • Florey was born in Australia and Chain in Germany • Helped mass produce penicillin
William Beveridge • Author of ‘Beveridge Report’ in 1942 • Proposed a free national health service • NHS eventually introduced in 1948
Christian Barnard • Pioneered the use of heart transplants in twentieth century • Used teams of surgeons and doctors sharing their expertise • New retroviral drugs used to ensure organs were not rejected by the body
Crick and Watson • Helped with discovering the structue of DNA • Used large teams of scientists all over the world
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