Health of Adults

Jessica Westmoreland
Flashcards by Jessica Westmoreland, updated more than 1 year ago
Jessica Westmoreland
Created by Jessica Westmoreland over 7 years ago
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Health of Adults

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What is the pleasure center of the brain? Nucleus accumbens
Define: Contusions -bruises on the surface of the brain commonly found in frontal, temporal lobes
Glasgow Coma Score Severe: 8 or less Moderate: 9 to 12 Mild: 13 to 15
Define: Epi (extra) dural hematoma -occurs at site of fracture - between skull and dura -quicker to develop
Define: Subdural hematoma -may occur weeks or months after injury -tear in the arachnoid -slower to develop
Define: Intracerebral hemotoma -bleeding occurs in brain tissue itself -single or multiple
Maastricht categories category 1: dead on arrival category 2: unsuccessful resuscitation category 3: awaiting cardiac arrest category 4: cardiac arrest in a brain dead donor
Define: 1. referred pain 2. phantom limb pain 1. pain that perceived at a site different from its points of origin but innervated by the same spinal segment 2. a type of neurological pain, follows amputation of a limb or part of a limb
Transmission of pain: 1. A-delta fibres 2. c-fibres fibres 1. myelinated, well localised, well discriminated, fast pain pathway 30m/sec 2. 1m/sec, slow pathway, poorly localised
What are the 4 types of bone cells? 1. osteogenic cells (stem-type cells) 2. osteoblasts- secrete new bone 3. osteocyates- maintain bone 4. osteoclasts- break down bone
What 2 types of bone cells make remodelling of the bone possible? Osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Explain why vitamin c and d are essential in bone remodelling? vit c- essential for collagen formation vit d-required for absorption of calcium and phosphate from diet
Define: osteoporosis reduction in organic matrix and mineral content of bone resulting increase fracture risk
1. Regeneration of injured tissue by... 2. Replacement of injured tissue by... 1. parenchymal cells 2. connective tissue
What are the 4 stages of bone repair and healing 1. hematoma formation 2. cellular proliferation 3. ossification 4. remodelling
What 5 factors affect wound healing? 1. malnutrition 2. blood flow and oxygen delivery 3. inflammation/immune function 4. infection, wound separation and foreign bodies 5. age
Erickson: psychoanalytic theory in adults -intimacy vs isolation (young adults) forming lasting relationships -generativity vs stagnation (middle age) achieve life goals, welfare for future generations
Levison's adult development theory stable period and transitional period
Buhler stage theory/life span theorist life patterns are guided by intentions, choosing life goals, working towards goals
What is not filtered by the kidneys? blood cells (rbc's & wbc's) and protein
Glomerular filtration rate normal GFR 90-140 ml/min(men), 80-125 ml/min(women)
Positive and negative pressure - normal lung inflation -pleural cavity maintains a negative pressure (3mmHg less than surrounding air) - within the lungs is more positive (760mmHg) and causes lungs to press aginst the parietal pleura
Ventilation & perfusion ratio (p/v ratio) -measurement used to assess the efficiency and adequacy of the matching of two variables -the ratio of the amount of air reaching the alveoli to the amount of blood reaching the alveoli
Low haemoglobin level= not getting enough oxygen to myocardium
Vital signs - adult T=36.5-37.5 P=60-100 R=12-20 BP=100-139/60-89
2 forms of asthma- 1. extrinsic - most common, atopic/allergic trigger 2. intrinsic - the pathogenesis of inflammation in this form is unclear, possibly associated with respiratory viral infections & inhaled pollutants such as sulphar dioxide
Cystic fibrosis -autosomal recessive condition involving secretion of viscous fluid from epithelial glands -major cause of chronic respiratory disease children -early diagnosis is crucial
Oxygen therapy -Nasal sepcs= 2L/min =23-28%, 4L/min =32-36% -Simple face mask= 6L/min =50%, 8L/min =55% -Non-rebreather mask with reservoir bags (minimises room entrainment) 15L/min 85%
ARDS -occurs as a result of injury to the aveolar capillary membrane resulting in leakage of fluid into the aveolar interstitial spaces and alteration in the capillary bed -there is marked ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) imbalance due to an impaired gas exchange and extensive shunting of blood in the lungs
Normal values: PO2, PC02, HC03, pH, respiratory failure -P02 >75mmHg -PC02 35-45mmHg -HC03 22+/-2mmHg -pH 7.35-7.45 -respiratory failure <60mmhg
Myocardial ischeamia= decrease ratio of 02 supply and 02 demand
Atherosclerosis -chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall resulting from initial injury to the endothelial cells lining the artery -injury is due to both chemical (diabetes, smoking etc) and mechanical (caused by increase BP) stress
Which blood group has no antibodies in plasma? AB
In an emergency what blood is given? we can all recieve O in an emergency & AB plasma
What temperature should a blood fridge be at and how long before you can reopen door after initial opening? -should be between 2-6 degress celcius -takes half an hour before you can reopen blood fridge as it disturbs the temperature
Disorders of lung inflation -pleural effusion=abnormal collection of fluid in he pleural cavity -atelectasis=collapse of lung segement -pneumothorax=prtial or entire collapse of affected lung due to air in the pleural space
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