Intro to Psc

LHuang
Flashcards by LHuang, updated more than 1 year ago
LHuang
Created by LHuang over 7 years ago
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Psychology The scientific investigation of mental processes and behavior. Think, feel, act
Evolution Variation in trait, Heritability of trait, Differential reproductive fitness
Francis Galton Behavior and mental processes shaped by evolution
Nature-Nurture Debate Nature = Genes Nurture = Environment Includes biological environment ex: culture, environment, behavior
Psyche Soul, spirit, or mind
Logos Study of a subject matter
Epistomology The study of how we gain knowledge
Wilhelm Wundt Established 1st laboratory for study of psychology in 1879 in German. Influenced by reductionism. Defined psychology as scientific study of the structure of conscious experience.
Biological Approach Behavior determined by physiological factors & approach
Sigmund Freud Approach to psc grew out of efforts to treat mental disorders. Developed psychoanalytic theory.
Sigmund Freud's emphasis The unconscious processes influencing behavior
Wilhelm Wundt's influence Reductionism
Wilhelm Wundt's def of psych The scientific study of the structure of conscious experience. Used introspection
William James Influence: Darwin. Focused on functionalism
Functionalism Investigating the function or purpose of consciousness
John B. Watson Founded Behavioralism. Behavior = overt (observable) response or activity by an organism. Abandoned study of consciousness
Evolutionary approach Roots in functionalism. Behavior arises as a function of our adaptive response to the environment
Evolutionary approach (cont.) assumes Assumes behavioral similarities between humans and other animals are biologically based
Psychodynamic Approach Behavior is influenced by the unconscious. Unconscious conflict related to sexuality plays role in behavior. Met w/ resistance
Behavioral Approach Nurture, not nature; Emphasized the environment
Cognitive approach Understanding how we gain and use knowledge
Cognition Thought, information processing
Humanistic approach Behavior determined by each individual’s capacity to think & act. Maslow, Rogers: major proponents
Humanistic approach assumes People are generally good, and competent to make decisions
Goals of Research Want accurate understanding of psychological phenomena. Purpose: describe, explain, predict, control
The Scientific Method A set of rules consisting of certain assumptions, attitudes, goals, & procedures for creating & answering questions about nature.
Rationalism Nature is lawful & the laws of nature are understandable. [Assumptions of sci method]
Determinism Behavior is determined. [Assumptions of sci method]
Empiricism Nature is “experienceable.” [Assumptions of sci method]
Hypotheses are generated by Theories, experience
Theory integrated set of propositions that can be used to account for, predict, & suggest ways of controlling certain phenomena
Hypothesis Formally stated expectation about how nature (specifically, a psychological phenomenon) operates
Naturalistic Observations Features Observations of human/animal behavior in the environment in where is usually occurs
Naturalistic Observations strengths Provides descriptive data about behavior supposedly uncontaminated by outside influences.
Naturalistic Observations pitfalls Observer bias & participant self consciousness can distort results
Survey features Standard set of questions asked to lots of ppl
Survey strengths Gather large amount of data in short amount of time, inexpensive
Survey pitfalls Poorly worded questions, sampling errors, response bias can distort results
Case Studies feature Intensive examination of the behavior & mental processes associated w/ a specific person/situation.
Case study strengths Provide detailed descriptive analysis of new, complex, or rare phenomenon
Case study pitfall May not provide representative picture of phenomena
Correlational Studies features Examine the relationships btw research variables.
Correlational study strengths Can test predictions, evaluate theories, & suggest new hypotheses.
Scientific Method: Results Results allow researcher to make inferences about the hypothesis
Statistics Use math to organize, summarize, & interpret numerical data
Descriptive statistics Organize & summarize data
Inferential statistics Interpret data & draw conclusions
Communicating Results Findings are shared to allow peer review which provides feedback. Results help refine understanding of a phenomenon & help refine theory that generated hypothesis
Peer Review of Scientific Articles Publishing allows evaluation & critique of experts. They evaluate methods,statistical analyses, & conclusions. Contribute to knowledge & theory. Purpose: ensure high-quality research
Ethical obligations (Research studies) Remove/reduce risk of physical &psychological harm, Accommodate any that is unavoidable. Informed consent & right to decline. Debriefing
Types of Neurons sensory:from outside to inside, motor: from inside to outside, interneuron: between other neurons
Dendrite Detects & carries signals to cell body [receiving branches]. Carries postsynaptic potential, an electrochemical signal moving towards cell body
Nucleus DNA is located here
Axon hillock The site of the action potential
Axon Carries the action potential to the terminal.
Myelin sheath & nodes of Ranvier Speed transmitter
Myelin sheath & nodes of Ranvier holds vesicles filled with neurotransmitters to release into synapse
Axon signal carried The action potential, an all-or- nothing electrochemical signal that shoots down the axon to vesicles at the tip of the axon, releasing neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitter A chemical released by one cell that binds to the receptors on another cell.
Neurotransmitter signal carried A chemical message telling the next cell to fire or not to fire its own action potential.
Synapse Provides an area for the transfer of signals between neurons, usually between the axon of one cell and the dendrite of another.
Synapse signal carried Chemicals that cross the synapse and reach receptors on another cell
Receptor Proteins on the cell membrane that receive chemical signals
Receptor signal carried Recognizes certain neurotransmitters, allowing it to begin a postsynaptic potential in the dendrite.
Somatic Nervous System Sends sensory information to central nervous system for processing & Sends messages from central nervous system to muscles to direct motion
Autonomic Nervous System Controls activities normally outside of conscious control. Subsystems: Sympathetic nervous system & parasympathetic nervous system
The Spinal Cord Receives signals from senses & sends them to the brain. Neurons in the spinal chord carry signals downward from the brain to the muscles. The cells can direct simple behaviors (flex)
Hindbrain Vital functions (medulla, pons & cerebellum)
Midbrain sensory functions [dopaminergic projections, reticular activating system]
Forebrain Emotion, complex thought (thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, cerebrum, cerebral cortex)
The Cerebrum, Cerebral Hemispheres 2 specialized halves connected by corpus collosum
2 Cerebral Hemispheres Left hemisphere: verbal processing [language, speech, reading, writing]. Right hemisphere: nonverbal processing [musical, visual]
Cerebrum 4 lobes Occipital: vision, Parietal: somatosensory, Temporal: auditory, Frontal: movement, executive control systems
Sense A system that translates “outside” infor into neural activity
Sensation Message from the senses
Perception Process by which sensations are given meaning
Accessory structures & systems It modifies energy. Visual system: eye, Aural system: ear, Kinesthetic system: joints and muscles
Transduction Sensory receptors translate physical stimulation into neural signals.
Trasnduction (cont.) Eye: retine (rods/cones); Ear: cochlea; Muscles and Joints: stretch receptors
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