C1 Fundamental Ideas

Flashcards by mouldybiscuit, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by mouldybiscuit about 6 years ago



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Question Answer
Atoms All substances are made out of atoms
How many atoms are naturally found on Earth? 100
Define: Elements Substances made out of only one type of atom
Define: Symbol names Letters used to represent elements in the periodic table. They are internationally recognised.
Define: Chemical names Names given to elements however they are different in each language
What is the importance of having symbol names? So that everyone can understand. A lot of scientific work is international.
Define: Groups Columns in the periodic table in which elements with similar chemical properties are arranged.
Where are non-metals found on the periodic table? right hand side of the 'staircase' (bold line dividing non-metals from metals)
Where are metals found on the periodic table? left hand side of the 'staircase' (bold line dividing non-metals from metals)
Define: Compounds Substances made up of two or more different atoms held together by chemical bonds.
What is an atom made up of? A tiny nucleus in the centre and electrons surrounding it.
Define: Protons Sub atomic particles charge: +1 relative atomic mass: 1 in the nucleus
Define: Neutrons Sub atomic particles charge: 0 relative atomic mass: 1 in the nucleus
Define: Electrons Sub atomic particles charge: -1 relative atomic mass: 0 or 1/200 in shells/ energy levels
Define: Atomic Mass The number of protons/ electrons in an atom of an element
Define: Atomic Mass Number of protons and neutrons found in the nucleus
Why does an atom have an overall neutral charge? It contains equal numbers of protons and electrons. The positive and negative charges cancel out
How do you calculate the number of neutrons in an atom? number of neutrons = atomic mass - atomic number
How are atoms arranged in the periodic table? In order of their atomic number
Energy levels can hold up to how many electrons? 2, 8, 8
What is the electronic structure of carbon?
Group number = ? Number of electrons in the highest energy level/ outermost shell
Group 0 elements are...? noble gasses stable full outermost shell unreactive also called Group 8
What happens when metals and non-metals react? Ionic bonding metals become positive ions non-metals become negative ions opposite charges attract strong forces of attraction (ionic bonds) form
What happens when non-metals react with each other? Covalent bonding outermost shells overlap and share electrons each pair of shared electrons form a chemical bond form molecules
What does the chemical formula of an ionic compound tell us? the ratio of each type of ion in the compound
What does the chemical formula of a molecule tell us? The number of each type of atom in the molecule.
Define: Reactants Substances that are made to react to each other in a chemical reaction to form products
Define: Products Substances that are made in a chemical reaction
Which is better: symbol equations or word equations? Why? SYMBOL EQUATIONS 1. internationally understood 2. tell us how much of each substance reacts 3. word equations can get very complicated when there are many chemicals
Whilst balancing equations, what do you need to remember? The total mass of products formed in a reaction = the total mass of the reactants
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