Deviant Behavior Study Guide 2

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Week 2 study guide

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Question Answer
biological and psychological theories viewed criminals as born, not made
somatotypes body builds thought to be related to certain personality characteristics or temperaments
"double male" or "super male" individuals that were unusually tall and predisposed to aggressive and violent behavior
lobotomies a surgery that destroyed the frontal lobe of the brain. performed on patients that were unresponsive to other treatments.
"twinkie defense" when a person becomes depressed and uncontrollably violent because they consumed too much junk food and sugary drinks.
Sigmund Freud He believed that people with too little ability to resist their impulses had Oedipus/Electra complexes, death wishes, inferiority complexes, frustration-agression syndromes, castration fears, or penis envy, leading them to commit hostile acts.
Alber Bandura Suggested exposure to aggressive or aversive behaviors could reinforce people's tendencies to become aggressive.
Yochelson & Samenow Thought criminals had distinct personalities and thinking patterns. And that criminals were victimizers not victims of society.
What was the dominant theory in sociology for the first half of the 20th century? Structural functionalism
According to Durkheim, what constrained people's behaviors? the norms, values, and laws they were taught.
Why did Durkheim feel deviance had positive benefits? it helps remind people of the set boundaries and brings them together.
where does the structural perspective locate the cause of deviance? outside of the individual and in the social structures.
What are the structuralists 2 main factors? 1. differential opportunity structure 2. prejudice & discrimination towards certain groups
Deviant behavior occurs when? when socially sanctioned means are not available for the realization of highly desirable goals.
According to Merton, anomie results from what? the lack of access to culturally prescribed goals and the lack of availability of legitimate means for attaining those goals. Making deviance an alternative.
Cloward & Ohlin's 3 types of deviant opportunities 1. criminal - arise from access to deviant subcultures. 2. conflict - people who have propensity for violence. 3. retreatist - people that withdraw from society.
conflict theorist view society is pluralistic, heterogeneous and conflictual. social conflict arises out of incompatible interests of diverse groups in society.
feminist theory takes a structural approach, locating the pervasive discrimination and oppression of women in society in the overarching patriarchal system.
Cultural conflict may occur when 1. people from one culture "migrate" 2. during a "take-over" situation, when the laws of one cultural group are extended to another. 3. on the "borders" of contiguous cultural areas.
lower-class culture theory suggests that when these individuals follow the norms of their subculture, they become deviant according to the predominantly middle-class societal norms and values.
interactionist perspective looks in a more micro fashion at people's everyday life behavior to try to understand why some people engage in deviance.
differential association theory deviant behavior is socially learned from intimate friends and family
Matza's Drift theory people gradually leave their old crowd and become enmeshed in a circle of deviant associates. might keep one foot in each world.
Becker emphasizes that deviance lies in the eye of the beholder.
control theory of delinquency unnecessary to look for the causes of deviant behavior. should seek to understand what holds people back from committing these acts, what forces constrain and control deviance.
"The Constructionist Stance" micro-interactionist approach, bridging the gap between the way labels are applied to individuals who then internalize them in their everyday life context.
Durkheim argues that deviance is so critical to society that if people stop engaging in it immediately, we would have to redefine acts now considered acceptable as deviant.
why is crime normal? a society exempt from it is impossible
2 important elements of social and cultural structures 1. culturally defined goals, purposes, & interests 2. what defines, regulates, and controls the acceptable modes of reaching out for these goals.
types of individual adaptation 1. conformity 2. innovation 3. ritualism 4. retreatism 5. rebellion
differential associations may vary in frequency duration priority intensity
when criminal behavior is learned, the learned includes 1. techniques of committing the crime 2. the specific direction of motive, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes.
conforming behavior is reinforced by individuals' attachment to norm-abiding members of society.
psychopathy lack of attachment to other
In patriarchal society, what is just as powerful of a system as class? gender stratification
what characterizes the gender-related pathway of girls into deviance and crime? the cycle of victimization to criminalization
the constructionist approach recognizes that people can only understand the world in terms of words and categories that they create and share with one another
The constructionist perspective consists of what theories? labeling and conflict
constructionist approach involved studying claims and the claimsmakers
medicalization defining deviance as a form of illness requiring medial treatment
social constructionism focuses on understanding how concerns about particular forms of deviance emerge and evolve, and for studying how social control agents construct particular acts as deviant and individuals as deviants
what is a major contribution to female delinquency? sexual abuse
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