MGMT 560 Flash Cards

Jorge Zepeda
Flashcards by Jorge Zepeda, updated more than 1 year ago
Jorge Zepeda
Created by Jorge Zepeda over 5 years ago
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What is the common information effect? Refers to the main determinate of how much a given fact influences a group decision is not the fact itself, but how many people happen to be aware of this fact prior to a group discussion
What are effects/consequences for the hidden profile? Teams dwell on info is the commonly known and make decisions that often reflect the common knowledge. The portions of the superior decision alternative are with each different member, which could contradict the groups choice
What are the steps to establish procedurally fairness? 1) Consistency 2) Bias suppression 3) Accuracy 4) Voice
What is a hidden profile? Defined as a superior decision alternative, but the superiority of choice is hidden from the group members because each individual member only has a portion of the info supporting the superior alternative choice
Describe Management by exception Degree to which leader takes corrective action on the basis of results of leader-follower transactions
What is active MBE? MBE = management by exception Monitor followers' behavior, anticipate problems and take corrective actions before the behavior creates serious difficulties
What are the types of transactional leadership? 1) Management by exception (Active or Passive) 2) Contingent Reward
Why is monitoring team size important to avoiding groupthink? Monitor team size: Larger teams are more likely to fall prey to groupthink. People grow more intimidated and hesitant as team size increases. Teams with more than 10 members may feel less personal responsibility for team outcomes
What is passive MBE? MBE = Management by exception. Passive is waiting until behavior is a problem before doing something about it
What effect/consequences does the common information effect have? Team members are more likely to discuss info that everyone knows, as opposed to unique information that each may have. As a result teams often fail to make decisions supported if all members had full info about the choices
What prevents pre-mature closure on a solution and extends problem analysis and evaluation Having structured discussion principles for teams
What can you do to avoid decision-making pitfalls as a group? Monitor team size the risk technique appoint a devil's advocate second solution extend the time frame
What is shifting to "System Two" 1) 5 question checklist, focused on the decision-making process 2) Used to uncover "system one" errors and be detached from the recommendations 3) Use for important decisions, not the "rubber stamp" ones 4) The key is to be systematic and disciplined when using the checklist
Why is providing a face-saving mechanism for teams important in avoiding groupthink? Many teams are afraid of being blamed for poor decisions—even decisions for which it would have been impossible to predict the outcome. Often, face-saving concerns prevent people from changing course, even when the current course is clearly doubtful. Teams that are given an excuse for poor performance before knowing the outcome of their decision are less likely to succumb to groupthink than teams that do not have an excuse
What is the "Risk Technique" when trying to avoid groupthink? Is a structured discussion situation designed to reduce group members' fears about making decisions. The goal is to create an atmosphere in which team members can express doubts and raise criticisms without fear of rejection or hostility from the team
Most teams can generate high-quality decision alternatives, but frequently fail to adopt them as preferred solutions, why? Because teams fail to establish procedures for protecting alternative view points
Why should you invite different perspectives when making group decisions? In this technique, team members assume the perspective of other constituencies with a stake in the decision. Could prompt these groups to reconsider evidence. Naysayers should not make accusations; it is better to take the "we have a problem" approach.
Go to the balcony, step to their side, reframe, build them a golden bridge and use power to educate is part of what strategy? The Breakthrough Strategy
What leads to more risky decision making, add stress and impairs the team's effectiveness to making decisions? Time pressure
What is contingent reward? 1) Discusses in specific terms who is responsible for achieving performance targets 2) Makes clear what one can expect to receive when performance goals are achieved
What is the Decision-making Checklist? 1) Are the recommenders "in love" with their recommendations? 2) Were dissenting opinions explored within the recommending team? 3) Where did the numbers come from? 4) Are recommenders overly attached to past decisions? 5) What info would you want and can get if you had to make the decision a year from now (again)
What is the idea behind appointing a devil's advocate? For the team to anticipate having to refute counterarguments are less likely to engage in confirmatory info instead of the team to have to give reasons for their decisions
Is it better to have contrived dissent or genuine dissent? Better to have genuine dissent. It's more effective in avoiding confirmatory decision making and better at stimulating original ideas, considering opposing positions and changing attitudes
What all is included in the Reframe step of the Breakthrough Strategy? Its step 3: –Accept whatever they say –Ask why they want what they want –Reframe their argument as an attempt to deal with the problem “We both want . . .” -Ask why, how can we both win?
What enhances the problem solving and idea-generation phases; as well as, performance quality when teams are forced to identify.....what? A second solution
What does BATNA stand for? Better Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement
Setting limits, avoiding the bystander effect, avoiding tunnel vision, recognizing sunk cost, avoiding bad moods, and having an external review all help do what? Avoid escalation of commitment to a losing course of action
Describe the "go to the balcony step" –Imagine yourself standing on a balcony looking down on your negotiation –This requires preparation before the meeting •Figure out your interests: “I want to lead a project” –why? •Figure out their interests: Put yourself in their shoes •Devise creative options: Your single greatest opportunity •Standards: Market value, equal treatment •Alternatives: Can you better your BATNA? •Proposals: Low aspirations are self-fulfilling •Rehearse: “Ah! I knew that was coming”
Doing the oppostive of what they are expecting, showing empathy, respect, acknolwedge their poitns and feels, share info, build trust is part of what step in the Breakthrough Strategy? Step 2, "step to their side"
What dimsion of transformational leadership is the following referring to? "The leader behaves in admirable ways that cause followers to identify with the leader... leaders display conviction, take stands, and appeal to followers on an emotional level" Charisma or idealized influence
To be more like a coach, empowering, team members are seen as future leaders not followers is what kind of leadership? Transformational
What does building a Golden Bridge entail? –Don’t push them –Make the outcome look like a victory for them –Don’t discuss issues sequentially •Get locked in lose-lose agreements •Trades become more difficult –Make multiple proposals simultaneously •Of equal value to you, made at the same time –Add contingency contracts
What are the dimensions of transformational leadership? Its a combination of: Charisma, idealized influence, Insiprational motivation, Individualized consideration, and Intellectual stimulation
What should you do if you want to "intellectually stimulate" followers within transformational leadership? You should question assumptions, reframe problems, approaching old situations with new methods and perspectives
The degree to which the leader attends to each follower’s needs, acts as a mentor or coach to the follower, and listens to the follower’s concerns and needs is what within transformational leadership? Individualized consideration
What two things make up "intellectual stimulation" for transformational leadership? –Re-examines critical assumptions to question whether they are appropriate. –Seeks differing perspectives when solving problems.
Within transformational leadership what is "inspirational motivation"? The degree to which the leader articulates a vision that is appealing and inspiring to followers
When you talk enthsiastically about what needs to be accomplished and articulate a compelling vision of the future you are doing what within transformational leadership? Inspiriing motivation
Cognitive Ability Brain based skills we need to carry our any task from the simplest to the most complex. More to do with mechanisms of how we learn, remember, problem solving and pay attention rather than with any actual knowledge
Being aware and managing your own and others emotions to discriminate between different feelings and label time appropriately and use emotional info to guide thinking and behavior. For example can you read your teammates true emotions even when they are trying to hide them is displaying what? Emotional Intelligence
Indeed, groups with activated ______________ are more likely to form coalitions, experience conflict, and have lower satisfaction and lower group performance than groups with dormant ______________. faultlines
How are emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence related? 1) Those with low cognitive intelligence, their performance increases as their emotional intelligence. 2) Those with high cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence does not play a role on their performance. 3) Those with low cognitive ability can catch up performance wise to people with high cognitive ability by being high on emotional intelligence.
Evaluation apprehension/conformity, free-riding/social loafing, production blocking, and performance matching are all threats to what? Team creativity
This type of recognition refers to an individual and/or group provding contingelty informal genuine acknowledgement, approval and appreciation for work well done Informal recognition
Are men or women viewed as more indpendent, assertive and rational-autocratic? Men
"________ is considered to be important in teams because it predicts behavior and performance Emotional intelligence
What are things you can do to improve creativity? 1. Create a functionally diverse team 2. Team members with lots of weak ties are best 3. Empower the team 4. Set high quantity goals 5. Make it a competition 6. Use the anonymous nominal group technique
True or false: women are viewed as more emotional, relationship focused-democratic True
What are weak ties? When group members have connections to others outside of the group and thsoe connections have experience that can help with the creativity process
What does LMX stand for? Leader-Member-Exchange (its a leadership model)
"_________________ focuses on the relationship that leaders develop with particular suborinates and what leaders of subordinates offer and receive in such relationships" the LMX model
Describe Level 3 trust repair? –Now the issue is whether or not these issues will persist into the future •Identify, acknowledge, and assume responsibility •Offer an apology (guilt + regret) •Voluntarily paying a financial penalty
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the LMX theory? •Advantages: Increased commitment, satisfaction, and performance •Disadvantages: Creates an “in-group,” reduces group efficacy
What is formal recognition? Refers to reinforcing employee accomplishments through formal company programs such as team of the month or specific awards for attaining levels of performance
When groups are under threat and desire to change, who do they favor: men or women leaders? Women
What is the mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action Groupthink
How many levels are there to repair trust? And what are they? Level 1: Innocent or Guilty. Level 2: Situation or Person. Level 3: Fixable or Fixed.
What is the following an example of: Positive rp: risk-averse, take the gain Negative rp: risk-seeking, gamble to try to remove loss Framing
What should you do at a Level 1 repair trust situation? –The most comprehensive way in which trust can be repaired is by affecting the truth of the violation •Challenge the notion •Provide tangible evidence •Provide verbal denials (as long as consistent with the evidence)
The follower is an exmple of what? Like "oh look that successful team has lunch together = that means we should have lunch together" Sampling on the depenent variable/ Halo Bias
What Level of trust repair is the following? "–Observers subtract the effect of the situation and attribute what remains to the actor •Provide an external excuse •Provide a justification" Level 2
What all should be considered for Job Design? Skill Variety Task identity Task Signifigance Autonomy Feedback
What are the four main principlas for Goal Setting? 1) Set difficult and specific goals 2) The higher the goal commitment the better 3) Use incentives to sustain commitment 4) Goal setting affects choice
What is the halo effect? It’s when we make an inference about specific traits on the basis of a general impression. It’s a mental short cut as we tend to grasp with relevant and tangible information, like performance. So we take that relevant information and make attributions about other stuff that are more vague or ambiguous. Pretty much a rule of thumb that lets people make guess about things that are hard to assess directly.
What is C.A.N.O.E. It stands for: Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness to experience Extraversion all part of the Big 5
What are the symptoms of groupthink? Invulnerability, Pressure, Morality, Mindguards, Stereotypes, Unanimity, Self-Censorship, Rationale, others: Overestimation, closed-mindedness, pressure towards uniformaity
How does framing work? Framing: Tendency to evaluate risk differently depending on how decision is presented (or framed). The inconsistency is a preference reversal and reveals the framing bias. Almost any decision can be refrained as a gain or a loss relative to something.
Does the halo bias only work with postive facts about someone or something? No, it works both ways. Once we know one positive (or negative) fact about someone, we tend to perceive other information we learn about that person in line with our initial perceptions.
Why is goal commitment so vital? • This is the most important. It is essential that the team is committed to the goal, this must be continuingly monitored AND measured. That means you need to keep asking team members how committed they are for the goals that are being set to them. Without this even an easy goal is useless in terms of increasing motivation
What is the best indicator for an individual's team performance? Intelligence. Agreeableness and conscientiousness are also up there
How challenging should you set goals? Make goals hard, as in set it to the 90th percentile difficulty. As in 1 out of 10 times teams can acheive it
How important is feedback when setting goals? Very, always provide feedback. Feedback should be integrated in the process and by given to reinforce the specific goals and progress being made
What are ways you can help with Goal Commitment? –Sequence the task in a way that guarantees early success –Find people whom the goal setter identifies with who have mastered the task and use them as models –The most powerful other is one’s self and verbal self-guidance can increase confidence; frame things positively –Participation is only necessary if you do not provide a logic or rationale nother option to find a similar team and model after them to set a collective confidence • Provide yourself. Make sure that teams frame positively
When someone tells you have are low in Neuroticsim does that mean you have high emotional stability? Yes, The tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, and vulnerability. Neuroticism also refers to the degree of emotional stability and impulse control and is sometimes referred to by its low pole, "emotional stability."
The following is an example of what kind of interview question? "“A coworker is attending to a customer at the store. The customer begins to get angry about the price of a pair of pants he tried on because he wants to use an expired Grouponand the coworker won’t let him. He begins to shout a yell and physically intimidate the coworker. What would you do in this situation?” Situational
What is learned helplessness? Where a team is repeated experiences where they do not reach their goal…in such cases teams learn to give up
What does KSA stand for? Knowledge, Skill,Ability
This is an example of what technique? "When people were told that two cupcakes cost $0.75, 40% bought the cupcakes. When they were told that one cupcake cost $0.75 and another would be ‘thrown in’ for free, 73% bought the cupcakes." "That's-not-all" technique
What is the difference between Learning vs. Performance goals? • Learning vs performance goals: In the case for novices: instead of performing something specific the goal is learning a specific technique. –When people lack the requisite knowledge to master a task, because they are in the early stages of learning, urging them to do their best results in higher performance that setting a specific difficult goal
What are some examples of pay structures for performance? –Gainsharing: An organization shares with employees a portion of added earnings such as increases in productivity or customer satisfaction with quality –Profit sharing: Provides payments based on the profitability of the business –Stock ownership: Gives employees the right to buy a specific amount of stock at a designated price over a specified time period
The following is an example of what? ". Asked people to put an ugly “Drive Carefully” sign in their front yard. 76% said yes if they had previously agreed to put a 3x3 inch safe driving sticker in their front window (versus 17%)." Foot-in-the-door technique: a small request opens the door for a larger one
What is an exmample the "door-in-the-face technique?" –Experimenters asked participants to counsel juvenile delinquents for 2 hrs/wkfor 2 yrs(all refused). Then asked to chaperone juvenile delinquents on a one-day trip to the zoo. 50% complied. When only given the small request, 17% complied
The following is an example of what kind of interview question? “Tell me about a time when you had to resolve a conflict between a coworker and a customer or supplier. How did the conflict come about, what were the steps you took to resolve it, and what was the eventual conclusion?” Behavioral
Which one is better strcutred or unstrcuted interviews? • Structured interviews are MUCH better than unstructured interviews…..have a similar approach to how to evaluate and determine a candidate for a team member…structure is much much better.
How does mood impact creativity? • Positive mood promotes more expansive, divergent thinking, novelty, and playfulness • Dual-tuning model: Negative mood can help you determine which ideas are useful • Positive mood = opens and shifts your mind to be more expansive…and playful. Can help develop more novel ideas • Negative mood: can help think critically and how useful the idea is • Tuned to both to max creativity. The optimal situation is where you shift from negative to positive and back in forth • But in groups: moods are tricky: something called emotional continuousness occurs. Just being around someone with a given mood can be transferred to you! This happens most with specific negative emotions: anger • How can you use this to your advantage? If group is in a rout then start shifting the mood to positive thinking. Behavioral modeling
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