VA & US History Chapters 13-15

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Study tool for Chapters 13-15 Test.

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12th Amendment Provides the procedure for electing the President and Vice President.
What happened during the "Age of the Common Man" 1) heightened emphasis on equality in the political process for adult white males 2) the rise of interest group politics and sectional issues 3) a changing style of campaigning 4) increased voter participation
Spoils System When you reward political supporters with a job in public office.
Which party disappeared? What parties replaced it? Federalists. Whigs and Know-Nothings.
What were the new political parties? Democrats Whigs Know-Nothings
What was the change in voter requirements? No property requirement. All adult white males could vote.
Old Corrupt Bargain of 1824 Henry Clay told the House to take all of his and Crawford's popular and electoral votes and give them to John Quincy Adams. Henry Clay was made Secretary of State.
Election of 1824 Candidates- John Quincy Adams William H. Crawford Henry Clay Andrew Jackson Winner- John Quincy Adams because of the "Old Corrupt Bargain of 1824"
The Monroe Doctrine (1823) -no future colonization by European powers in U.S. -nations in the Western Hemisphere were different from those of Europe (republics by nature rather than monarchies) -U.S. would not interfere with European affairs -U.S. would regard as a threat to her own peace and safety at any attempt by European powers to impose their system on any independent state in the Western Hemisphere.
Mexican War (1840s) American victory. Gained the territories of present-day California, Utah, Arizona, and parts of Colorado and New Mexico.
"Manifest Destiny" America's belief that they were destined to stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Provided political support for territorial expansion.
"Trail of Tears" When several tribes were relocated from Atlantic Coastal States to Oklahoma.
What fueled the call for a declaration of war? British interference with American shipping and westward expansion.
What prompted increased participation in state and national politics? -An extension of the franchise (voters) -Westward expansion -Rise of sectional interests
Who personified the "democratic spirit"? How did they do it? Andrew Jackson. -challenged the economic elite -rewarded campaign supporters with public office (Spoils System)
Who favored high protective tariffs? Why? The North. To protect Northern manufactured goods from foreign competition.
The Missouri Compromise (1820) Drew an east-west line through the Louisiana Purchase, with slavery prohibited above the line and allowed below, except slavery was allowed in Missouri which is north of the line.
Compromise of 1850 California entered as a free state. New Southwestern territories acquired from Mexico would decide on their own.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 Repealed the Missouri Compromise line. Popular Sovereignty. Led to the formation of the Republican Party.
Nullification Crisis A union that allowed state gov. to invalidate acts of the national legislation could be dissolved by states seceding from the Union in defense of slavery.
Who were the slave revolts in VA led by? What did it lead to? Nat Turner and Gabriel Prosser. Fed white Southerners fears about slave rebellions & led to harsh laws in the South against fugitive slaves.
Women's Suffrage Movement To give equal rights to women. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
Seneca Falls Declaration of 1848 Convention for women only. Elizabeth Cady Stanton- 'Declaration of Sentiments' for women's right to vote (suffrage)
Texas Revolution Key Battles: -San Jacinto -Alamo Statehood Recognition. Slavery outlawed in Mexico, American settlers disagreed.
Jackson and the VETO He used the veto more than any other president. Famous for the pocket veto.
"Era of Good Feelings" Illusion of national consensus was shattered by the Panic of 1819 and the Missouri Compromise.
Panic of 1837 Jackson's distrust in the national bank led him to veto the recharter of the bank. Jackson took all of the money out of the national bank and put it in state banks.
Tariff of 1828 and 1832 Used to make the South pay for manufactured products from the North by putting taxes on British imports. Favored by the North. Opposed by the South. Jackson threatens to collect revenue with troops.
Jackson and the U.S. Bank distrust. wealth=property; material things. vetoes recharter.
Election of 1832 Jackson v. Clay Bank War
South Carolina Exposition John C. Calhoun. Argument of states' rights in support of nullification.
Westward Movement To OWN and FARM land. Frontier life=rough/ruthless; lack of authority.
Population Growth Birthrate: HIGH Problems with sewer, sanitation, etc. in cities.
"Old Immigration" Seeking freedom and better lives for their families. Immigrants faced hostility and hardships even though they were doing the jobs Americans didn't want to do.
Know-Nothings (Political Party) "I Know Nothing." Resented immigrants.
Industrial Revolution U.S. competition with Great Britain. Southern resentment of Northern imposed tariffs, talks of secession. Samuel Slater- "Father of the Factory System"
Cotton Gin Eli Whitney. "Cotton Kingdom" "Black Belt" Led slavery-based "cotton gin" in the Deep South. Cotton production moved West. Lack of industrial growth in the South.
Transportation Better roads. Canals, Steamboat. Railroads (North) Helped growth of industrial economy and westward movement.
Irish Immigration Seaboard cities. Too poor to move west and buy land. 1840s potato famine rebellion against British rule.
German immigration Prospered with ease. Better educated than most Americans. Supported public schools, arts, and music. Compact colonies. Championed freedom; fought to end slavery,
Second Great Awakening Methodists and Baptists. Religious Revival. CONVERSION for ALL. Camp meetings. Led to division. Temperance, Asylum & Penal reform, Abolitionism, Women's Rights, and Education.
Denominational Diversity 2nd Great Awakening widened lines between class and region. Big Boundary, Split between North & South faith and ideals considered first sign of splitting. Protestants encouraged the importance of education.
Second Great Awakening Results Strong religious influence. Reshaped American religion- reliant on women members & social reformers. Promoted religious diversity. Found many small, denominational liberal arts colleges in the South and West.
Millerites Adventists. Predicted return of Christ to Earth: October 22, 1844. Lost credibility.
Mormons Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Joseph Smith- original prophet, Brigham Young. Utah War.
Educational Reform Democracy demanded an informed, educated electorate. Necessary to educate immigrants. Free education idea: Tomas Jefferson and Horace Mann. Citizens did not want to support schools through taxes. Wealthy Americans realized children would grow up to be dangerous, ignorant voters without an education.
Noah Webster Dictionary "standardized" the American language.
Higher Education for Women Prejudice that too much learning would injure the woman's brain, ruin their health, and make them unfit for marriage.
Problems with Education Special Needs. Unskilled teachers. Tuition-free education. African Americans. Lyceums, Mentally ill adult education.
Prison Reform Some prisons began to experiment with ways to reform criminals (solitary confinement, etc.). Dorothea Dix- leader Reformers wanted to help the mentally ill and sought for private executions.
Temperance Movement Attempted to ban the use of alcohol. States passed "local option" laws. American Temperance Society and Cold Water Army.
Women's Suffrage Abolitionist Movement eclipsed this movement. Led to 19th Amendment. Seneca Falls Declaration and Declaration of Sentiments- Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.
Status of Women in 19th Century "second-class citizens" Paid fewer wages than men. Considered superior in moral sensibility and artistic refinement.
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