Intro to Psych and The scientific method

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Created by UdaraJay almost 5 years ago


Intro to psych

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Question Answer
Psychology? Psychology is the study of behavior and the mind.
Scientific approach of psychology? It takes the usual scientific path of systematically and evaluating empirical evidence.
4 questions to ask when thinking critically? What are the claims being made? Who is making the claim? Are they credible? What is the evidence provided? Are there any other explanations to it? What is the most appropriate conclusion to come to?
4 goals of Psychology? To describe human behaviour To understand and evaluate human behaviours To predict human behaviors under different conditions To influence or control human behavior in order to enhance human welfare
Basic Research vs Applied Research Basic research is a quest for knowledge for its own sake, whereas applied research is designed to solve a specific practical problem.
Levels of analysis of human behavior? (A simple framework) Biological – brain / genetic influences Psychological – thoughts / feelings / motives Environmental - specific stimuli such as aromas and etc
Mind-body dualism This is the idea that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern the body.
Monism Holds the idea that the mind and the body are one, not a spiritual entity.
Psychological perspectives Behaviorism, Humanistic, Neuroscience, Psychodynamic, Cognitive, Sociocultural perspective
Behaviorism Attributes a persons behaviour to their environment and experiences.
Humanistic Humans naturally strive for personal growth, develop and control their lives and behaviour
Neuroscience Our brain and physiology shape our behavior
Cognitive (The thinking human) How we think and comprehend the world around us, and how our world view can affect our behaviour.
Sociocultural perspective Studies how social environment and cultural influences affect our behaviour, thoughts and feelings.
Name the different schools of psychology Structuralism, functionalism, behaviourism, gestalt, psychoanalysis, cognitive behaviourism
Structuralism The study of the mind by breaking it down to its basic components
Functionalism Structuralism eventually gave way to functionalism, which is the close study of consciousness.
Behaviorism Attributes the cause of behaviour to the person's environment and experiences
Cognitive behaviorism It studies how thoughts, expectations, experiences and the environment give us the information we need to behave effectively.
Gestalt psychology How the mind unifies experiences in a whole, unified perception.
Psychoanalysis Developed by Sigmund Freud. It is the theory that our unconscious parts of our mind profoundly influences behaviour.
Evolutionary psychology Studies how evolution shaped human behaviour.
Individualism The emphasis on self. Mainly found in industrialized countries and the North America and Europe.
Confirmation bias Usually when our beliefs are established, we fail to test them due to this bias
Critical thinking Involves taking and active role in understanding the world around us, instead of merely receiving information.
Free association This is where a person is allowed to freely talk and express anything they feel. This is type of psychoanalysis.
Socialization When the values of a group are passed down to a new member and that person internalizes them.
The Scientific Approach This is where scientists take concrete and systematic steps to avoid bias and problems that me lead to inaccurate conclusions.
What are some techniques they use in the scientific approach? - The used statistics to analyze correlations in order to avoid make illusory ones. - The use multiple people to analyze and record behavior (by using an inclusive sample or random sampling) - They use instruments (eg: video recorders) to objectively and accurately record peoples responses.
Scientist need to be? Curious, skeptic and open-minded
Steps in the scientific process Gather info and form hypothesis. Test hypothesis by designing and running experiment. Find the truth. Publish findings. Build a body of knowledge, conduct more research.
What are the two approaches to understanding behaviour? 1. Hindsight (After the fact understanding) 2. Prediction, control and theory building
Theory A theory is a formal statement which explains how and why certain events are related to one another. 1. They are broader than hypothesis 2. They are usually made up of several hypothesis 3. More elaborate than hypothesis 4. Good theories generate good hypothesis
Hypothesis A specific 'if-then' statement
The five research methods Observational method (Naturalistic observation), Survey method, case study method, correlational method, Experimental method
Observational method (Naturalistic observation) Observe without interfering and come to conclusions. (like studying classroom students through a one-way mirror)
Survey method Give people surveys and questionnaires
Case study method An in-depth study of an individual, group or event. (It is a poor method to determine cause and effect)
Experimental method: Manipulating one or more variable to see the effect on some behaviour
Correlational method Determine a relationship b/w to or more variables. Remember than correlations does not necessarily mean causation.
Two problems of correlational research? The interpretive problem is called the third variable problem. Z is responsible for what looks like a relation between X and Y. When Z changes it causes X and Y to change in unison. But this is not as a result X and Y on each other. It is a major disadvantage of correlational research. Bi-directionality problem: Genetic and environmental problems which may be relevant to how humans develop psychologically.
Canadian code of ethics for psychologists 1. Protect and promote the welfare of the participants 2. Avoid doing harm to participants 3. Obtain informed concept – oral or in writing 4. Do not carry out a study unless the probable risk is proportionally greater than the risk 5. Take all steps to ensure that consent is not given under coercion 6. Ensure privacy and confidentiality
Correlation coefficient A statistic that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables
Positive coefficient Increase in one variable shows and increase in the other variable
Negative coefficient When higher scores in one variable are associated with lower scores on another variable
Experimental group The group that received the medication or treatment
Control group The group that is not exposed to the treatment or are given zero-level treatment.
Confounding of variables This is where two variables have interwined in a creating ay that we cannot say which one affected the dependant variable.
Experimenter expectancy effect this is where the experimenter may cause a subject to sway in a certain direction because they are invested in the hypothesis.
Social desirability bias the tendency to respond in a socially acceptable manner rather than according to how one truly feels or behaves.
Self report measures Used to ask individuals about their knowledge, attitudes, feelings, experiences or behaviours.
Representative sample This is where random sampling is used to obtain a set of subjects who represent the population fairly.
Psychological tests in its essence they are specialized self-reports which are used by psychologists to measure numerous variables.
Self-enhancing bias Thinks we are better than others in a variety of dimensions.
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