Chapter 2 - Community Corrections: Public Safety is Job One

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Chapter 2

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activities services or functions carried out by a program (i.e., what the program does). For example, treatment programs may screen clients at intake, complete placement assessment, and provide counseling to clients
collective efficacy refers to a sense of cohesion within a given community whereby citizens have close and interlocking relationships with one another
deterrence discouraging people from lawbreaking by example
environmental crime prevention component of a community justice orientation that determines why certain areas of a jurisdiction are more prone than others
evidence-based practices (EBPs) a term that identifies one outcome as being desired over another that is measurable and is defined in clearly observable terms rather than immeasurable or moral terms
feminist theory contends that traditional criminology has typically generated theories that are suited for the male population, with little or no regard for the corresponding female offender
goal a desired state of affairs that outlines the ultimate purpose of a program. This is the end toward which program efforts are directed. For example, the goal of many criminal justice programs is a reduction in criminal activity
incapacitation deprives the offender of liberty and removes him or her from society with the intent of ensuring that society cannot be further victimized by that offender during the offender's term of incarceration. Also, the physical restriction to prevent further opportunities for lawbreaking
labeling theory contends that individuals become stabilized in criminal roles when they are labeled as criminals. As a result, they are stigmatized, develop criminal identities, are sent to prison, and are excluded from conventional roles
objectives specific results or effects of a program's activities that must be achieved in pursuing the program's ultimate goals. For example, a treatment program may expect to change offender attitudes (objective) in order to ultimately reduce recidivism (goal)
policy a governing principle pertaining to goals, objectives, or activities. It is a decision on an issue not resolved on the basis of facts and logic only. For example, the policy of expediting drug cases in the courts might be adopted as a basis for reducing the average number of days from arraignment to disposition
rehabilitation implies that an offender should be provided the means to fulfill a constructive level of functioning in society, with an implicit expectation that such offenders will be deterred from reoffending due to having worthwhile stakes in legitimate society, stakes that the offender will not wish to lose due to criminal offending. Also, changing the offender's behavior or circumstances to reduce the possibility of further lawbreaking.
restitution compensation to the victim and/or community for crimes committed
retribution often referred to as the "eye for an eye" mentality, this term simply implies that offenders committing a crime should be punished in a like fashion or in a manner that is commensurate with the severity of the crime that they have committed
routine activities theory a theory based on three simplistic notions. First, in order for a crime to occur, a motivated offender must converge with a suitable target. Second, this theory contends that the likelihood of such an occurrence is affected by the routine activities that both victims and offenders engaged in. Third, the area of occurrence must be absent of capable guardians who might thwart criminal behavior.
social disorganization theory examines issues associated with norms in the community and contends that, for offenders, informal socialization processes (family, peers, etc.) break down and, in their place, ciminogenic influences are left unchecked
social learning theory contends that offenders learn to engage in crime through exposure to and adoption of definitions that are favorable to the commission of crime
strain theory/institutional anomie this theory holds that when individuals cannot obtain success goals (money, status, etc.), they will tend to experience a sense of pressure often called strain. Under certain conditions, they are likely to respond to this strain by engaging in criminal behavior
subcultural theory theory that many individuals tend to simultaneously learn to commit crime in one location, and this results in crime rates becoming disproportionately high in such areas where criminal behavior is learned as a valued norm
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