Brain and Behaviour

Grace Feakes
Flashcards by Grace Feakes, updated more than 1 year ago
Grace Feakes
Created by Grace Feakes almost 7 years ago
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Undergraduate Psychology (Brain and Behaviour ) Flashcards on Brain and Behaviour, created by Grace Feakes on 11/16/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
The brain's outer layer of neural tissue Cerebral Cortex
Largest lobe in the brain Frontal lobe
Section of frontal lobe which plays large role in speech and language Left frontal lobe
What may damage to the frontal lobe affect? (name 3) Any 3 of: emotions, memory, language, impulse control, social or sexual behaviour
Functions of the frontal lobe which are particularly vulnerable (name 2) Any 2 of: capacities for future planning, abstract thinking, controlling impulse
The section of the brain integrates sensory info from various parts of the body Parietal lobe
Where are the parietal lobes located? Behind the frontal lobe
Contain primary sensory cortex Parietal lobe
The efferent lobe specialise in... Sending and receiving info from the brain
Damage to which lobe may affect ability to locate and recognise body parts? Parietal lobe
The cortex below the temporal lobe Insula
The lobe responsible for understanding speech and complex visual perception Occipital
Explain cortical blindness Inability to see, not due to eye damage but through damage to the temporal lobe
The role of afferent neurons is... to keep the nervous system informed about the external world by carrying info in the CNS
Interneurons are an example of what type of neuron? Afferent neuron
The role of interneurons is... To make local connections within the CNS
True or false: Interneurons have either very short axons or none at all True
True or false: Efferent neurons carry info towards the CNS False, they carry info outwards from the CNS
The main processors of the nervous system Neurons
The motor cortex... Directly controls movements
The sensory cortex is also known as... The somatosensory cortex
What occurs as a result of damage to the prefrontal lobe? Difficulty with memory
The band of white fatty matter connecting the left and right cerebral halfs Corpus callosum
The brain stem the interface between... The brain and the spinal cord
The folds the the cerebral cortex Sulci
The bumps in the cerebral cortex Gyri
The front of the brain is the____and the back the____ 1. anterior 2. posterior
The top of the brain is the____and the bottom the____ 1. dorsal 2. ventral
The nervous system in cased in bone Central nervous system (CNS)
The main function of the peripheral nervous system To connect the CNS to the limbs and organs, allowing for communication
The peripheral nervous system is made up of... Motor and sensory nerves
Spatial ability The ability to perceive the construction of an object in both two and three dimensions
True or false: Someone with neglect syndrome has difficulties with spatial perception True
Inability to process/perceive stimuli on one side of the body not due to a lack of sensation Hemispatial neglect
Golgi's method of staining Silver staining technique used to visualize nervous tissue under a microscope
The concept that the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells is... Neuron doctrine
Grey matter Where neurons and glia cells are found
An alternative name for cell body Soma
Commonly found at the end of an axon Terminal buttons
The white fat which coats axons in called... Myelin sheath
What is an oligodendrocyte? A type of glia cell which provide myelin to axons
The junction between 2 neurons Synapse
Glioma Type of tumor that starts in the brain or spine, arising from glial cells
Anything inside the neuron is referred to as... Intercellular
Extracellular Anything outside the neuron
The primary chemical in the nervous system Sodium (Na+)
The millivolts of a neuron at its resting potential -70 mV
Neuron doctrine The concept that the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells
What did Golgi believe? That the cerebral cortex was made up of one connected neuron
Where in the brain are neurons and glia cells found? In the grey matter
Where neurons receive inputs Dendrites
At the terminal buttons_____are released Neurotransmitters
Primary cell found in the cerebral cortex Pyramidal cell
What would a block in neuron sodium channels result in? Paralysation
Without action potential... We can't breathe or move
The vagus nerve is attached to which organ? The heart
Who gave the first demonstration of neurotransmission? Loewi
Neuron releasing the neurotransmitter is called the____neuron Pre-synaptic
Neuron receiving the neurotransmitter is called the____neuron Post-synaptic
Depolarisation Cells become less negative
True or false: excitatory neurons cause the postsynaptic neuron to be less positive False, it causes it to be less negative
Inhibitory neurotransmitters makes postsynaptic neuron less likely to____ Fire
Neurotransmitters work as____messengers, changing neuron voltage Primary
Secondary messengers cause more____term changes than____messengers 1. long 2. primary
Methylphenidate is a type of Cognitive enhancer
Name a neurotransmitter Acetycholine
What neurotransmitter causes your muscles to contract Acetycholine
The main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain GABA
The main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain Glutamate
Extracellular has a____charge and intracellular a____. 1. positive 2. negative
How can the differences in electrical charge inside and outside the neuron be measured? With a voltmeter
True or false: Sodium diffuses into the cell and potassium out True
The primary chemical in action potential (extracellular) Sodium
Neurons naturally have a____charge. Negative
Diffusion pressure When its more concentrated inside the cell
How is it possible for sodium to reach the neuron? Through sodium channels
When at resting potential, sodium channels are____. Closed
When the neuron receives inputs from other neurons... The sodium channels open
True or false: During action potential, sodium channels all open at once False, they open in stages
Depolarisation When neurons become less negative resulting in discharge
Polarization How far away you are from 0 (an electrical difference across the cell membrane)
True or False: voltage change becomes less apparent further down the sodium channels False, change in voltage remain consistent across the channels
How is the concentration of chemicals inside and outside the neuron balanced? After sodium goes into neuron, potassium diffuses out
When stimulated, vagus nerve releases a chemical which causes the heart to____ ____. 1. slow down
What is a neurotransmitter? The broad term for chemicals used by neurons to communicate
Cognitive enhancers Boost brain power and alertness
Name a primary messenger Nicotinic receptors
Name a kind of secondary messenger Muscarinic receptor
What was acetylcholine previously known as? Vagusstoff
What may an antagonist receptor cause? Why? Paralysis, as it blocks receptors
Which drugs work through stimulating GABA receptors Drugs for anxiety
Nicotine is an____and curare is an____. 1. agonist 2. antagonist
Neurotransmitters often activated by drugs of abuse Catecholamines
What is the most common form of diabetes? Type 2
Two contributing factors to type 2 diabetes 1. lack of exercise 2. being overweight/overeating
The 3 main nutrients in food Carbs, protein and fat
What are carbs made from Complicated sugars
What is in protein Amino acids
Carbs are converted into glucose by... Enzymes breaking them down
There is a close relationship between diabetes and____ Obesity
Hormone used to store glucose Insulin
The stored form of glucose Glycogen
What converts glycogen into glucose to be used as energy? Glucagon
The____sends signals to the brain to start eating when blood sugar level is____. 1. liver 2. low
True or false: Fat cells in our gut produce hormones with long term control over eating True
The size of your fat cells depend on... How many calories you consume and burn off
Regulates energy intake and expenditure Leptin
Damage to the lateral hypothalamus causes... Starvation
Ventromedial hypothalamus damage causes you to... Continue to eat and never feel full
Where in the hypothalamus is the satiety area found? The ventromedial hypothalamus
Metabolic homeostasis State in which food intake equals energy expenditure
Metabolic syndrome Consuming more than the body needs for energy
Carbs become____when you have too much of them. Fat
Using fat rather the carbs produces____ ____instead of glucose. Ketone bodies
The Atkins diet involves... Dramatically cutting out carbs so fat cells are burned instead
True or false: Those suffering from Alzheimers have larger gyri and sulci True
EEG electroencephalogram
State of sleep associated with dreaming REM sleep
Capacity to sleep____through age. Decreases
How does the EEG monitor look in deep sleep The waves are longer
True or false: When sleeping, you go through each sleep stage in turn False, you cycle between stages
2 factors which may affect sleeping pattern Some types of sleeping pills, alcohol
What is the optimum duration of sleep? 7 hours
Where is our body clock located? The suprachiasmatic nucleus or SCN (in the hypothalamus)
Why is sleep disrupted in the winter? There is less light
Primary hormone associated with the SCN Melatonin
True or false: Alzheimer's affects your circadian activity True
What is circadian rhythm? Daily rhythmic activity cycle based on 24-hour intervals
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