Anna Hollywood
Flashcards by Anna Hollywood, updated more than 1 year ago
Anna Hollywood
Created by Anna Hollywood over 7 years ago


GCSE Biology (B1) Flashcards on B1, created by Anna Hollywood on 11/18/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is blood pressure measured in? mm of mercury (mmHg)
Systolic pressure - max/rest Diastolic pressure - max/rest Systolic pressure - max Diastolic pressure - rest
Name 4 things that can cause blood pressure to rise Stress, high alcohol intake, smoking, being overweight
Name 2 things that can cause blood pressure to fall Exercise and a balanced diet
Name 3 things that high blood pressure can cause Burst blood vessel, stroke, kidney damage
Name 3 things that low blood pressure can cause Dizziness, fainting, poor circulation
What is fitness? Ability to do physical activity
What is health? Being free from disease
How can fitness be measured? By measuring your cardiovascular efficiency
How can specific fitness be measured (5 ways)? -Strength -Flexibility -Stamina -Agility -Speed
How can smoking increase blood pressure? -Carbon monoxide cause blood to carry less oxygen = heart rate increases - Nicotine increases heart rate
What is the risk of getting heart disease increased by? - Lots of sat fats in diet leads to build up of cholesterol (plaque) in arteries - Salt increases blood pressure
What can plaque in arteries cause? Blood clots and thrombosis (which will block the artery)
What are the three things you need for a balanced diet and what are they made from? Proteins -> amino acids Carbohydrates -> simple sugars such as glucose Fats -> fatty acids and glycerol
What does a balanced diet vary with? Age, gender, level of activity, religion, being vegetarian etc
What are stored in the body? Carbs and fats
Where are carbohydrates stored? In the liver as glycogen or converted into fats
Where are fats stored? Under the skin and around the organs as adipose tissue
What is the way to calculate the amount of protein needed I your diet? Your EAR in g = 0.6 x body mass (in kg)
What can not enough protein cause? Where is it most found? Kwashiorkor. In developing countries due to overpopulation and lack of money to improve agriculture
What can EAR be affected by? Body mass, age, pregnancy
Why do some vegetarians not get the protein they require? Because they don't get the first class proteins from meat and fish which hold all the essential amino acids that can't be produced in the body.
How can we work out if someone is over or underweight? By calculating their BMI. BMI = mass in kg / (height in m)2
What are the ranges for the different types of weight for BMI? Less than 20 = underweight 20-25 = normal 25-30 = overweight Over 30 = obese
Why do some people not eat enough food? Low self-esteem, poor self-image or a desire for perfection
What is malaria caused by? A protozoan called Plasmodium, which feeds on human red blood cells
What is the plasmodium carried by? The mosquitoes (vectors)
What is the parasite and the host in malaria? Parasite = Plasmodium Host = Human
Name 3 ways in which we can stop the spread of malaria - Draining stagnant water - Putting oil on the water - Spraying insecticide
How can changes in lifestyle and diet decrease your risks of cancer? - Not smoking - Using sunscreen
-Benign tumours are harmful/harmless -Malignant tumours are harmful/harmless Benign=harmless Malignant=harmful
How do pathogens harm the body? They ac produce toxins and damage the body's cells
What are the two ways in which a white blood cell can destroy a pathogen? Engulf them or produce antibodies
What do the antibodies do? They lock onto the antigens of the foreign pathogen, killing it
What is the difference between active and passive immunity? Active immunity is where your body produces antibodies to destroy the pathogens. It then produces memory cells so the antibodies for that pathogen won't be forgotten. Passive immunity is where you are vaccinated against the virus.
What is the difference between active and passive immunity? Active immunity is where your body produces antibodies to destroy the pathogens. It then produces memory cells so the antibodies for that pathogen won't be forgotten. Passive immunity is where you are injected with antibodies against the virus.
How does vaccination work? - Inject dead or weakened pathogen - The white blood cells work to produce antibodies against that virus - Memory cells are created, meaning long-lasting immunity
Why is immunisation worth the risk? Stops disease spreading and prevents the effects of pathgen
How do antibiotics such as penicillin work? How does this explain why they can kill bacteria and fungi but not a virus? It diffuses out, destroying the pathogens cell wall. A virus doesn't have a cell wall, it has a coat of protein.
How are vaccinations tested? On animals, human tissue and computer models, then human trials.
What is a placebo? A harmless pill
What's a blind trial? Patient doesn't know if they're receiving a drug or a placebo.
What's a double blind trial? Patient and doctor doesn't know if they're receiving a drug or a placebo.
Why do they recommend not to over use antibiotics? Because resistant strains of bacteria are emerging such as MRSA which has thrived causing serious illness.
What does the cornea do? Refracts light into your eye
What does the lens do? Focuses light onto the retina
What does the retina do? Contains light receptors, this is where the image is formed
What does the iris do? Controls the amount of light that enters the eye
What does the optic nerve do? Carries the nerve impulses to the brain
What is an advantage and disadvantage of monocular vision? What animal as this? + Good field of view - Bad at judging distance Rabbit (so it can see its predator coming)
What is an advantage and disadvantage of binocular vision? What organism as this? + Good at judging distance - Bad field of view Human (predator)
What do your ciliary muscles, suspensory ligaments and lens do when your focusing on a close object? Ciliary muscles - contract Suspensory ligaments - slacken Lens - squished into fat shape
What do your ciliary muscles, suspensory ligaments and lens do when your focusing on a distant object? CM-relax SL-tighten Lens- stretched into thin shape
What is red-green colour blindness caused by? Lack of special cells in retina
Why are some people short sighted and how can we correct this? Eyeball too long or lens too rounded - image produced in front of retina. Concave lens
Why are some people long sighted and how can we correct this? Eyeball too short or lens too thin - image produced behind retina. Convex lens
What are the 3 main parts of central nervous system? Brain, spinal cord and nerves
What carries the nerve impulse in a motor neurone? The axon
Name the 7 main parts of a motor neurone Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, dendrites, axon, insulation sheath and nerve endings
What is the order of the reflex arc? stimulus -> receptor -> sensory neurone -> CNS -> motor neurone -> effector -> response
What is the pathway for a spinal reflex? receptor -> sensory neurone -> relay neurone -> motor neurone -> effector
How are motor neurones adapted? Long, have dendrites to pick up impulses and have an insulating sheath
An example of a reflex action and advantages They are automatic and protective, examples include knee jerk, iris reflex and spinal reflex
What sort of chemical does an impulse trigger? What happens when this chemical is released? It triggers a chemical neurotransmitter substance to be released. It diffuses across the synapse and binds with the receptor molecule on the other side
Which are the most punished class of drug? Class A
What's an example of a class A, class B and class C drug? Class A - heroin Class B - amphetamines Class C - tranquilizers
What are the 5 different types of drugs and what are examples of these drug types? Depressants-alcohol Painkillers-aspirin Stimulants-nicotine Performance enhancers-anabolic steroids Hallucinogens-LSD
How do depressants work? They block the synapses by binding with the receptor molecule in the membrane of the receiving molecule
How do stimulants work? They cause neurotransmitter substances to cross synapses
What causes a 'smokers cough'? When dust and particles in cigarette smoke collect and irritate the epithelial lining, this means that the mucus is not being moved by the cilia
What are the short-term effects of alcohol? Sleepiness and impaired judgment, balance and muscle control. This leads to blurred vision and slurred speech. There is an increased flow of blood to the skin, which can cause it to become red.
What are the long term effects of alcohol? Damage to the liver and brain. The liver is damaged when it breaks down toxic chemicals like alcohol. This is called cirrhosis of the liver.
What is homeostasis? Keeping a constant internal environment
What does homeostasis involve? Balancing body inputs and outputs
What do automatic control systems keep the levels of? Temperature, water and carbon dioxide to make sure all the cells can work at an optimum level.
What is the negative feedback system? It acts to cancel out a change such as a decrease in temperature level. It is used in homeostasis.
What is the optimum body and enzyme temperature? 37 degrees Celsius
What 2 things can a high temperature cause? Heat stroke and dehydration. Both fatal if not treated
What is the body's natural way of cooling down? Sweating
How does sweating work? The evaporation of the sweat requires body heat to change the liquid into water vapour
What can a very low temperature cause? Hypothermia (slow pulse rate and violent shivering)
What is body temperature monitored by? The hypothalamus gland
What is vasoconstriction? The narrowing of the blood vessels to decrease heat loss and blood flow.
What is vasodilation? The widening of the blood vessels to increase heat loss and blood flow.
What hormone controls blood sugar levels? Insulin
Why is hormone action slower than nervous reactions? Because hormones travel in the blood
What is type 1 diabetes? Caused by the pancreas not producing any insulin, so must be treated by doses of insulin.
What is type 2 diabetes? Caused by body not producing enough or not reacting to insulin, can be controlled by diet
How does insulin regulate the blood's sugar level? By converting excess glucose in the blood into glycogen, which is stored in the liver.
How does type 1 diabetes vary? According to diet and activity. Lots of exercise needs more glucose so not as much insulin is needed
Shoots are positively/negatively phototropic and positively/negatively geotropic Positively phototropic and negatively geotropic
Roots are positively/negatively phototropic and positively/negatively geotropic Neg photo Pos geo
Where are auxins made? In the tips of the root and shoots of plants
Why do shoots grow towards the light? Because the auxin goes to the shaded side of the shoot and elongates its cells, causing the plant to bend
What are the four things that plant hormones are used? Selective weedkillers, rooting powder, delay or accelerate fruit ripening, dormancy in seeds
What are alleles and what are the two types of them? Different version of the same gene. Recessive and dominant
What is the debate over to do with nature v nurture? Whether intelligence, sporting ability and health are inherited or learnt
When are dominant and recessive alleles shown? If one/both alleles are dominant the dominant characteristic is displayed. Both alleles have to be recessive for the recessive allele to be shown
How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have? 23
Male chromosomes=? Female chromosomes=? MC- XY FC - XX
Why is there a random chance if a sperm fertilisers an egg that the offspring will male or female? Because using the inheritance diagram it shows that there would be an equal chance
What are the 3 things that genetic variation is caused by? - mutations (changes tot he DNA) - rearrangement of the genes during the formation of gametes - fertilisation which results in a zygote with alleles from the mother and father
What is a monohybrid cross? Involves only one pair of characteristics controlled by a single gene, one allele being dominant and one allele being recessive
What is homozygous and heterozygous? Homo-identical alleles Hetero-different alleles
What's the difference between genotype and phenotype? Genotype-genetic make-up Phenotype-which alleles are expressed
What are inherited disorders caused by? Faulty alleles, most of which are recessive
What are the personal and ethical issues raised? - genetic tests (a positive result could alter lifestyle, career and insurance) - by knowing risks of passing on inherited disorder (could effect whether people marry/start family)
How can you predict the probability of passing on an inherited disorder? Interpreting genetic diagrams
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