raines study of murderers

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raines study of murderers test cards

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Question Answer
WHAT WAS RAINES PROCEDURE? 1. Opportunity sample 2. PET scan to compare NGRI /control 3. injected with FDG Glucose tracer 4. CPT task 5. 32 mins after taken corticol peels.
WHAT WERE THE 3 FINDINGS? 1. REDUCED glucose in the corpus colosseum, prefrontal and LH of HAT 2. INCREASED glucose in cerebellum/occiptal lobe and RH of HAT 3.No difference in putaman, midbrain in NGRI and controls.
WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH THE METHOD? The method was a quasi experiment so could not be randomly allocated. Does not show a causal relationship. Lacks validity
ANY STRENGTHS/ WEAKNESS OF PET SCAN? Scientific and objective methods of PET scan in comparison to the past, post mortems. However,still in the infancy.
WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE SAMPLE Although a large sample. not representative
NAME 2 ETHICAL ISSUES OF RAINES STUDY VALID CONSENT- prisoners that pleaded NRGI , did they understand consent? PSYCHOLOGICAL HARM - in terms of the anxiety caused by the PET scan and CPT task.
WHO WERE THE SAMPLE 41 murderers who had pleaded NGRI 39 men and 2 women average age of 34
WHO DID THEY MATCH THEM WITH? the control group was matched with individuals of the same sex, age . the 6 schizophrenic were also matched with 6 schizophrenics from a mental hospital the other controls had no psychiatric history, or physical illness
OUTLINE THE CONCLUSION Past research identified a link between areas of the brain and aggression e.g. the limbic system. these findings are support by this study they both show preliminary evidence that murderers pleading NGRI have different functioning than normal individuals neural pathways are complex and can't be reduced to a single pathway. violent behaviour could be due to disruption, not CAUSING, BUT PREDISPOSING an individual to violence.
Is violence due to neural processes? violent behaviour can be caused by a disruption of neural pathways and could be PREDISPOSITION NOT THE CAUSE.
What are confounding variables? other variables other than those controlled that could influence the findings
Raines study was carefully controlled for the sample and matched controls, but what CONFOUNDING VARIABLES could play a role? ( a03) head injury and IQ might not be ruled out as contributory factors.
Give a strength of using PET scans techniques are scientific and objective and until now there research was done on post mortems, so allows detailed studies of sections of the brain
what was wrong with the sample? not typical of all violent individuals . Only draws conclusions about this kind of offender i.e. NGRI. Can not be generalised.
what was the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE( Cause) in the study? this was the NGRI or not
What was the dependent variable( the effect) activity of the brain regions
Why was it not an experiment? because there was no direct manipulation of the IV i.e. the IV was an already existing condition not created by the experimenter.
What is the problem of a quasi experiment it does not show definitive causal relationships i.e. violent behaviour is determined by biology.
Fallon found alternative evidence, what did he say? DIATHESIS STRESS MODEL - individuals have a PREDISPOSITION i.e. genetics and brain, but certain triggers are needed to start it off e.g. difficult childhood.
what gene is also responsible for violence according to Tilhonen et al monoamine oxidase A -
What neurotransmitter does this 'carrier gene' increase/( the C should be a w) dopamine is increased.
why is the research socially sensitive? it could have consequences for the larger group e.g. if murderers are born then people with similar brains could be imprisoned. not given a fair trial.
why could they not WITHDRAW from the study? because they were prisoners. they may have felt they couldn't say that they no longer wished to take part.
What psychological harm might have been caused? may have found the cognitive task difficult and this could lead to lower self esteem. Also having the PET scan might have been distressing.
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