AS Level History - Background to the 1918-89 period

Ben C
Flashcards by Ben C, updated more than 1 year ago
Ben C
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AS - Level History - Germany (Political and Governmental Change) Flashcards on AS Level History - Background to the 1918-89 period, created by Ben C on 10/12/2015.

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Question Answer
PRE 1918 BIT OF BACKGROUND PRE 1918 BIT OF BACKGROUND
What is a Burgfrieden? Peace within the fortress.
What did this mean? All political parties and social classes came together and sank their differences, due to the war effort.
What happened towards the end of the war, in terms of the power of the Kaiser and why? -Kaiser had an impulsive nature which meant that he lost support of the OHL. -OHL took most powers of the Kaiser, leaving him as a figurehead leader.
What is the OHL and what does it stand for? -German High Military Command. -Oberste Heeresleitung.
Towards the end of the war, what was the political split in Germany, in terms of left and right and why? -Socialists questioned why Germany was still fighting as they had seen the war as defensive; not offensive. -Nationalists demanded a Siegfriede, peace through victory.
Which party gained support over the last years of the war, how much support, and why? -Fatherland Party created by Admiral Tirpitz and right-wing journalist, Wolfgang Kapp. -This was to rally support for an annexationist war. -1918 - Had 1 million members. -Shows the nationalism in Germany.
What is a revolution? The transfer of power in circumstances outside the normal constitutional processes.
In simple terms, what was the revolution from above? A liberalised constitution of the 2nd Reich in 1918, with the OHL handing power over to a democratic government in 1918.
What and when was the first BIG political change in transforming Germany into a democratic government? September 1918 - OHL advised the Kaiser to hand political power to a new government, led by Prince Max of Baden.
What were the three main reasons for the change in political direction? 1) Impending military defeat. 2) Allies. 3) General Ludendorff.
Give evidence for why impending military defeat was a cause for the change in political direction. 23rd September - Bulgaria requested an armistice. Only a matter of time before Germany's other allies (Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary) followed suit.
Give evidence for why the allies were a cause for the change in political direction. Allies refused to enter peace negotiations with anything other than a fully representative government.
Give 2 reasons why General Ludendorff was a cause for the change in political direction. -New civilian government would be able to get better peace terms from the allies. -New civilian government would be blamed for Military defeat. --Reputations of generals would be preserved. --Help maintain positions in post-war world.
In simple terms, what was the revolution from below? October 1918 mutinies
What were the October reforms? New government formed based on Reichstag.
What was the German Revolution? The social unrest due to Germany losing the war.
What happened in late October in terms of the navy? There were mutinies at naval bases, Kiel and Wilhelmshaven, who refused to sail out to salvage German honour.
What happened as a direct result of the mutinies? -It encouraged the creation of sailors', soldiers', and workers' councils. -These challenged the authority Länder governments.
What happened politically in order to prevent a full scale revolution? -Prince Max announced Kaiser's abdication. -Chancellorship handed over to moderate socialist, Friedrich Ebert.
What did the SPD split into? -Spartacus League in 1916 (revolutionary communism). -USPD in 1917. -Majority SPD (MSPD).
Who was the major split between and why? -MSPD on one hand and USPD and Spartacists on the other. -MSPD wanted to make most of October reforms and the power inherited from Prince Max.
What happened on the 9th November 1918? -Council of People's Representatives is created, led by Friedrich Ebert. --Ebert, Scheidemann and Landsberg (MSPD). --Haase, Dittmann and Barth (USPD).
Did this work? If not, why? -No it didn't work AT ALL. -Big differences emerged over longer-term strategies and policies.
What was the biggest difference between the USPD and Spartacists, and MSPD? USPD and Spartacists: -Wanted a committed council rule which was associated more with revolutionary Russian ideals. MSPD: Prepare for a transition to a national constituent assembly, which was more in line with Western-style democratic institutions.
What further 3 differences developed in December 1918? -The maintenance of law and order. -Whether the army should be radicalised. -Whether the means of industrial production should be brought under socialist control.
What was the significance of the SPD split (3 things)? -New Republic caught between three left-wing divisions. -Big division in central government between councils and constitutional structure on the other. -Länder affected as Bavaria came under Eisner's USPD regime in November 1918.
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