Anna Hollywood
Flashcards by Anna Hollywood, updated more than 1 year ago


GCSE Biology (B2) Flashcards on B2, created by Anna Hollywood on 11/20/2013.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is the acrostic for remembering the classification order? King Prawn Curry Or Fat Greasy Sausages
What is the order of classification? Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
What is the difference between an artificial system and a natural system? Artificial-based on one or two key characteristics, e.g. birds that like by the sea are seabirds Natural-based on evolutionary relationships more detailed e.g. animals more closely related are more likely to be in the same group
What has help scientists determine how closely related two animals are? By sequencing the bases in DNA
What is a species? A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring
What is the binomial system? Where every animal has two parts to its name the first is the genus (starts with capital) and the second is the species (lowercase)
Why is the archaeopteryx difficult to class into a group? Because it has feathers like a bird and teeth and a long, bony tail like a reptile
Why can't bacteria be classed as a species? Because they reproduce asexually
Why can't a mule (cross between donkey and horse) be classed as a species? Because they are infertile
Why can't you tell if some animals are closely related and have a common ancestor? They may have different features due to living in different habitats
Why are dolphins and fish similar and why are they different? They both share the same habitat (ecologically related) but dolphins are mammals
Why are dolphins and bats similar and why are they different? They live in different habitats but they are both mammals (they are related through evolution)
What do pyramids of biomass show? The dry mass of living material at each trophic level
Why may pyramids and of biomass look different to pyramids of numbers? -if producers are very large -if a small parasite lives on a large animal
Why are pyramids of biomass difficult to construct? -some organisms feed on other organisms from different trophic levels -it involves removing an organisms water (killing it)
As energy flows along a food chain, what is some energy transferred into (less useful)? -heat from respiration -egestion -excretion
Why is the material lost at each stage of a food chain not wasted? Because decomposers use it and can then start another food chain
Why does the animal at the end of the food chain not have much food available to it? Because they love about 90% of the useful energy at each trophic level
How can efficiency in food chains be calculated? (energy used for growth/energy input) x 100%
Is carbon found in a number of living organisms? Yes
Why does carbon need to be recycled? So that it can be available again to other living organisms
How is carbon dioxide removed from the air? Photosynthesis
What passes carbon along a food chain/web? feeding
What is carbon dioxide released into the air by? Respiration, decomposers, combustion
What is carbon dioxide absorbed by and what is it turned into? By the oceans. The marine organisms make shells from the carbonate which turns into limestone rocks.
How can the carbon in limestone return to the air as carbon dioxide? During volcanic eruptions and weathering
Why do plants take in nitrates? For protein (growth)
What passes nitrogen compounds along a food web/chain? Feeding
How are nitrogen compounds returned to the soil? They are broken down in dead animals and plants by decomposers
What do decomposers do? They are soil bacteria and they convert proteins and urea into ammonia
What do nitrifying bacteria do? Convert the ammonia into nitrates
What do denitrifying bacteria do? Convert nitrates into nitrogen gas
What do nitrogen-fixing bacteria do and where are they found? They are found in root nodules and they fix the nitrogen gas. This also occurs by the action of lightning
What do animals living in the same habitat compete for? What do they compete or if they are in the same species? Resources such as food. If they are in the same species, mates.
What is an ecological niche? It describes the habitat that an organism lives in and its role in that habitat.
Why are species that live in the same niche more likely to compete? As they require similar resources such as the harlequin and native ladybirds
Define interspecific Competition between two species
Define intraspecific Competition between organisms of the same species
Why do predator and prey cycles show both ups and downs (3 reasons)? -Lots of prey=more predators survive=numbers increase -Prey numbers therefore drop -Predators starve=pop drops
Why do the predators peak soon after the prey peaks? Because it takes a little while for the increased supply of food to allow more predators to survive and reproduce
Explain a relationship between a parasite and its host -Host suffers -Fleas are parasites -Tapeworms are also parasites
Explain a mutualism relationship -Birds cleaning ticks off an ox -Insects pollinating flowers -Cleaner fish eating parasites off larger fish
How do legumes on pea plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria have a mutualistic relationship? -The bacteria turn nitrogen into nitrogen-containing chemicals and give some to the pea -Bacteria gets photosynthesis sugars from the pea plant
Name 5 adaptations of animals in cold climates Excellent insulation, large with small ears (small SA:V), behaviour changes (migration, hibernation), counter-current heat exchange(warm blood entering flipper warms up cool blood going back into body), biochemical adaptations(anti-freeze proteins in cells)
Name 4 adaptations of animals living in hot climates Little hair, smaller bodies and larger ears (increase SA:V), panting, seeking shade at hottest hours in day
Name 2 adaptations of animals to cope with dry climates -Camels with concentrated urine -Cacti have spines and deep roots, can store water in stem
What are animals called that can survive in hot conditions? What's an example of this? Extremophiles. Bacteria can live in hot springs as they have enzymes that don't denature at temperatures as high as 100 degrees Celsius
An example of a specialist Polar bear
An example of a generalist. Disadvantage and advantage? Rats. Can survive in several habitats but will lose out to specialists in certain environments
Who wrote the theory of natural selection? Charles Darwin
Sum up the theory of natural selection -Variation within species -Competition for limited resources between offspring -Survival of the fittest -Those that survive pass on their genes to offspring
How do (overtime) the changes produced by natural selection result in a new species? -Only happens when they can't mate for a long time -Maybe due to them living in different areas (geographical isolation) or behavioural isolation -They may evolve differently to become to different species
Why is natural selection difficult to study? Because it usually takes thousands of years to see the effect
Give 2 examples of natural selection -More bacteria are developing resistance to antibiotics -Dark peppered moths can survive in camouflaged an polluted areas so more of them survive
Why did people disagree with Darwin's ideas at first? -Not enough evidence -Destroys all known theories of God
Why is Darwin's theory now more widely accepted? -Explains observations -Been discussed and tested by range of scientists
What was Lamarck's theory? The law of acquired characteristics e.g. giraffes have long necks so that they can eat, then this was passed on
Why has Lamarck's theory been stated as incorrect? Due to discovery of genes
What are the 3 main types of pollution? -Carbon dioxide -CFCs -Sulfur dioxide
What is the rate of growth of the human population called? Exponential growth
Why is the human population growing exponentially? Because birth rate is exceeding death rate
Where is the greatest population rise happening? In the developing countries
Why do the developed countries have the most pollution? Burning more fossil fuels
What does the carbon footprint show? The amount of greenhouse gas given off in a certain time by an individual
What do direct methods do? Use oxygen probes attached to a computer to tell the pollution levels in a pond.
How do they use indicator species to test for pollution? An absence of the mayfly larva and lots of water louse could suggest polluted waters. An absence of water louse and lots of mayfly larva could suggest clean water
What are the advantages of using indicator species? -Cheap -Reliable -Monitors levels over a long period of time
What is an advantage of using direct methods? -Accurate results at any specific time
Give 4 reasons as to why people think that conservation is important -Protect food supply -Protect damage to food chain -Protect organisms that could be usefully for medical studies -protect organisms/habitats that people enjoy to visit/study
When are species at risk of extinction? If the number of individuals/habitats fall below critical levels
What are the 3 important factors to include when trying to conserve a species? -population size (a small pop size means unlikely to be enough genetic variation to enable it to survive) -Number of suitable habitats available -Amount of competition from other species
Name 3 things that whale's bodies are used for? -Teeth for buttons -Liver for oil -Skin for accessories
Why do some people object captive breeding with whales? They lose their freedom
Why is it hard to police whaling? the sea is so vast
What is an alternative to killing whales to find out more about them? Study migration patterns and whale communication
What does sustainable development mean? Taking enough resources for current needs whilst leaving enough for future generations and not causing permanent damage
2 examples of sustainable development -Fishing quotas -Replanting woods
3 ways we can put sustainable development into practice what will this help achieve? -Manage alternative fuels (to fossil fuels) -Supply increasing amounts of food for population without destroying large areas of natural habitats -Dispose of large amount of waste products to minimise pollution HELP SAVE ENDANGERED SPECIES
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