Chapter 7 Memory

clayton.breit
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Key points in Chapter 7

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The process of encoding, storing, and retrieving information Memory
The first process in recoding memory Encoding
Information must be encoded and ____ so it can be retrieved later stored
Can store information for only a short period of time Sensory memory
Information is stored in sensory memory for how long? A very short time
Memory that typically is forgotten in less than 30 seconds Short-term memory
First stage of memory where information is stored briefly Sensory memory
Information is stored in this by using memory strategies such as chunking short-term memory
When we reconstruct memories from our past, we tend to remember information in terms of schemas
You have a very vivid memory of the events of September 11, 2001. This is probably a ____ memory flashbulb
When we sometimes forget because nothing triggers our memory of a specific bit of information cue-dependent forgetting
one's recollections of their own life experiences autobiographical memory
Memory loss that occurs without other mental difficulties amnesia
used when determining a correct answer in a multiple choice question recognition
____ is a memory strategy used to group information whereas, ____ is repeating information over and over chunking, rehearsal
Knowing how to parallel park and the ability to tie your shoes are examples of what kind of memory? procedural memory
the memory system that holds information while actively manipulating the information working memory
when items presented at the end of a list is remembered best recency effect
Linda recalls the car accident that occurred in front of her as she stood waiting for the bus. Linda could say that the details were recalled using ____ memory processing flashbulb
forgetting that occurs because previous learning conflicted with recalling newer information proactive interference
In a model of memory using a computer, the computer's hard drive would be similar to the ____ process of memory storage
The more we think about and analyze something, the more likely we are to be able to ____ it later remember
Knowledge is stored in ____ networks in mental representations of cluster o interconnected information semantic networks
Levels-of-processing theory suggests one way to remember something is to think about it
critical step to be able to recall information accurately encoding
term used to describe the ability to remember information on a list and where it is listed on the list position effect
Creating a rhyme to remember the states and capitols mnemonics
When we cannot quite recall some information, but we once knew it, we are having a failure of long-term memory retrieval
syndrome resulting from chronic consumption of alcohol Korsakoff's
results in a gradual decline in cognitive abilities Alzheimer's disease
Memory for factual information, names, faces, dates, and the like is called ____ memory, whereas memory for skills and habits such as riding a bike or hitting a baseball, is called ____ memory declarative, procedural
The two parts of this type of explicit memory are episodic and semantic declarative
Automatically completing the steps of doing the laundry involves implicit memory
organized body of information that helps us to understand a situation, but can also bias our interpretation of a situation schema
Cue-dependent forgetting occurs where there is a lack of retrieval cues in the environment
Overlearning is continuing to study and learn material after it has been learned
Betty hit her head in a car accident. Since then, she can remember things after the accident, but cannot recall items from before the accident. This is an example of Retrograde amnesia
One way to increase the amount of information that can be retained in short-term memory is to chunk the information
Occurs when exposure to a concept makes it easier to later recall things that are related to the concept Priming
Term used to describe the fact that Laura could only recall the first items listed on her grocery list Primacy effect
Gill remembered many details about his life prior to a head wound he sustained in the Gulf War. However, he was unable to remember from day to day the new friends he made in the convalescent home or the explanation of his situation by the doctors. This is an example of Anterograde amnesia
Part of working memory that handles information relating to speech Verbal store
located below the cortex and is important for consolidation of memory Hippocampus
where memories are stored in the brain Cerebral cortex
can be inaccurate because of the wording of questions Eyewitness accounts
Elaborative rehearsal takes advantage of ____ to increase retention in long-term memory Semantic networks
occurs when individuals have memories for some material but cannot recall where it was encountered Source amnesia
the two parts of ____ memory are episodic and semantic Declarative
According to levels-of-processing theory, we are most likely to remember things if we consider What they mean
states that the passage of time always increases forgetting Decay theory
When using the working memory other cognitive functions become ____ aware Less
____ memories is when an individual are unable to recall the source of a memory, whereas ____ memories is recalling a memory is too traumatic so one pushing the memory into the unconscious False, repressed
Interference occurs when The instructor keeps talking as you are trying to write own what she just said
involves linking things that you know with things that you want to learn Keyword technique
effective note taking requires Thinking about what is said before writing it down
The structures of memory, including the capacity of short and long-term memory are ____ influenced by culture Not
memories that you are not consciously aware of creating Implicit memories
engrams are not yet defined
About how long does the consolidation of long-term memories take? Several days and up to several years
Being unable to recall tour grocery list until you are at the store and see some of the items you need on the shelves Is an example of what type of forgetting? Cue-dependent forgetting
Ebbinghaus's research on memory may have led to some misunderstandings about memory because he was his only participant
____ memory reliability are highly vulnerable to influence of others during recollection of eyewitness accounts Children's
short-term memory can retain about ____ pieces of information 5 to 9
Long-term recall is helped by this, which involves studying and rehearsing after one has initially mastered the material Overlearning
cultural differences can be seen in the way in which information is acquired and rehearsed
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